Parece mentira que haya tanta vida en este lugar. ¡Qué felicidad!
It's unbelievable that there's so much life in this place. So much happiness!
Captions 11-12, Café Tacuba - MediodíaPlay Caption
One of the first Spanish words we learn is hay, that odd but ever so useful incarnation of the verb haber that means both "there is" and "there are." Hay dos gatos ("there are two cats"), hay una casa ("there is a house"). Wow, what a simple language!
And then somewhere along the line they told us about the subjunctive, where, even though the there's usually no difference in English, the verb in Spanish is completely different if there exists any sense of uncertainty or doubt. Wow, this might be an impossible language!
Well, haya is where our friend hay meets our nemesis, the subjunctive. Like hay, haya also means "there is / there are", but it is used when the subjunctive is called for. Café Tacuba introduces doubt when it begins the lyric above with "It seems impossible" (Parece mentira- literally "It seems like a lie") so that the phrase that follows utilizes haya instead of hay.
"It seems impossible that there is so much life in this place. What happiness!"
In De consumidor a persona we find a discussion of "Fair Trade" commerce in which haya is used to express possibilities (not certainties):
Que no haya explotación infantil, que haya igualdad entre hombres y mujeres...
That there is no child exploitation, that there is equality between men and women...
Captions 36-37, De consumidor a persona - Short Film - Part 5Play Caption
Bueno, mi experiencia como profesor de matemáticas ha sido muy gratificante.
Well, my experience as a math teacher has been very gratifying.
Caption 7, Profesor de matemática - EntrevistaPlay Caption
In English the term "professor" is reserved for those with high level university faculty positions, but in Spanish profesor can be used for "school teacher" at any grade level, including university (profesor universitario). Andrés Valencia, who teaches secondary school, uses profesor in the phrase above when he says:
"Well, my experience as a math teacher has been very gratifying."
Note: The term catedrático, is only used at the university level and can refer to a "university professor," "full professor," "department chair" and other such things. Its use seems to vary some from country to country as to how lofty a height one has to reach in the ivy tower before gaining this title.
In this clip Venezuelan restaurant owner Emiro Graterol tells us a little bit about his father.
Mi papá fue maestro de escuela, director de las escuelas de las compañías petroleras Shell, en aquel entonces.
My dad was a school teacher, head of the schools of the Shell oil companies, in those days.
Captions 6-9, Emiro - La Historia de EmiroPlay Caption
Emiro's father taught at the K-12 level, and Emiro uses the alternate term maestro, which can also be used to mean "teacher."
"My father was a school teacher."
El papel principal del gobierno es promover el desarrollo... y mejorar el nivel de vida.
The main role of the government is to promote development... and improve the standard of living.
Captions 21-22, Con ánimo de lucro - Cortometraje - Part 3Play Caption
Most of us know that papel is "paper," not only do they sound alike but if you've ever taken Spanish class no doubt your teacher has often asked you to take out una hoja de papel, "a sheet of paper."
However, papel is also "role" (as in "the role of technology in education"). So, in the phrase above we have:
"The main role of the government is to promote development..."
El papel de la ONG ha sido un papel auxiliador.
The role of NGO has been an assisting role.
Caption 29, Con ánimo de lucro - Cortometraje - Part 3Play Caption
Note: Organización No Gubernamental (ONG), Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)
In this final clip we have Carlos explaining some of the functions that the myth of Bachué played in Muisca society.
Que además resalta el papel que la mujer tenía en la sociedad muisca
Which also highlights the role that women had in Muisca society
como la encargada de transmitir las tradiciones y valores de la cultura.
as the ones in charge of transmitting traditions and cultural values.Play Caption
Eso fue cuando hicimos Inconquistable Corazón que yo ya tenía que radicarme acá.
That was when we did Unconquerable Heart and I really had to settle here.
Captions 49-50, Biografía - Natalia OreiroPlay Caption
The verb radicar can mean "to be situated/located (in)," and so what Natalia is saying in the quote above is:
"This was when we did 'Inconquistable Corazón' that I had to settle here."
Bueno, yo llegué a... a radicar a Holbox del Estado de Morelos, pero ahora ya me siento Holboxeño.
Well, I came to... to settle down in Holbox from the State of Morelos, but now I feel Holboxian.
Captions 7-8, Yabla en Yucatán - JorgePlay Caption
Con la crisis económico, me tuve que radicar en España.
Given the economic crisis, I had to relocate to Spain.
Pero hace diez años sí, ya nos radicamos en Buenos Aires.
But ten years ago we did establish ourselves in Buenos Aires.
Caption 13, Karamelo Santo - GoyPlay Caption
Radicarse en otro pais es dificil.
To establish yourself in another country is difficult.
La belleza del ámbar mexicano radica en su gama de tonos.
The beauty of Mexican amber lies in its range of tones.
Caption 6, Sergio en Monterrey - El ámbar mexicanoPlay Caption
El problema radica en la falta de presupuesto para este sector.
The problem lies in the lack of budget for this area.
¡Y además te quejas!
And still, you're complaining!
Caption 7, Tu Rock es Votar - Comercial de TVPlay Caption
Quejarse is a verb meaning "to complain," so we translate the above phrase directed at Mexico's voters as:
"And still you're complaining!"
Así que no puedo quejarme.
So I can't complain.
Caption 33, Federico Kauffman Doig - ArqueólogoPlay Caption
Similarly, the affable Federico Kauffman Doig uses quejarme when he states "So I can't complain."
On a related note, you won't be surprised to learn, if you didn't yet know it; una queja is "a complaint."
Tengo que pedir el libro de reclamaciones y poner una queja.
I have to ask for the complaint log and make a complaint.
Caption 6, Raquel - El libro de reclamacionesPlay Caption
Mañana misma pongo la queja.
Tomorrow I'll put in the complaint.
Caption 23, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa - Capítulo 2Play Caption
Cuando hace humedad, podemos escuchar a la gente quejándose por ello.
When it's humid, we can hear people complaining about it.
Captions 27-28, Clara explica - El tiempoPlay Caption
The preposition following quejarse is often de.
Se queja de un dolor en el abdomen.
She complains of pain in the abdomen.
Se la pasa quejándose de que no tiene dinero.
She is always complaining about having no money.
A ti no te gustaría que te dijeran...
You wouldn't like it if they told you...
con quién tienes que andar.
who you have to hang out with.
Captions 1-2, Tu Rock es Votar - Comercial de TVPlay Caption
As per our previous discussion of the verb gustar, the phrase above states:
"You wouldn’t like it if they told you who you have to hang out with."
But what does the addition of A ti at the beginning do for the phrase? It simply adds emphasis to the "you," the translation would be same even if it wasn't there.
[Side note: remember we talked about andar's various meanings outside of the obvious "to walk"? The phrase above demonstrates yet another, "to hang out / pal around."]
Él le hizo daño a mucha gente.
He did harm to many people.
-¿Qué daño te hizo a ti, mamá?
-What harm did he do to you, Mom?
Caption 11, Yago - 10 EnfrentamientosPlay Caption
I like you.
A mi me gustas.
I like you. ("I" emphasized.)
A mí me gusta cambiar las sábanas cada semana.
I like to change the sheets every week. ("I" emphasized.)
Caption 21, Ana Carolina - Arreglando el dormitorioPlay Caption
Besides adding emphasis, this type of construction can also clarify about whom you are talking.
Le gusta bailar.
He likes to dance.
A Juan le gusta bailar.
Juan likes to dance.
No mires a tu compañero, a ti te estoy preguntando.
Don't look at your buddy, I'm asking you.
Este... Vamos a tratar de explicarles... este... la labor de la artesanía. Este... trabajo que llevamos acabo muchos jóvenes aquí en esta ciudad y...
We're going to try to explain... the... the work of crafts. This... work that many of us, young people carry out in this city and...
Captions 5-6, Javier Marin - Artesano VenezolanoPlay Caption
Nouns Labor (fem.) and trabajo (masc.) both mean "work" -- the opposite of retirement or rest. Venezuelan artisan Javier Marin uses the word interchangeably above to describe his subject: The work of local artisans, like himself, in the city of Coro, Venezuela.
Javier also uses the related verb trabajar ("to work") multiple times in his chat to describe how the work was done. Here, he talks about some of the materials they work with, such as glazed ceramic (el gres) and snail shells (los caracoles):
También trabajamos con el gres.
We also work with glazed ceramic.
Caption 26, Javier Marin - Artesano VenezolanoPlay Caption
También trabajamos un poco con lo que son este... las piezas del mar, los caracoles.
We also work a little bit with... parts of the sea, seashells.
Captions 54-55, Javier Marin - Artesano VenezolanoPlay Caption
When describing the employment history of his father, the verb trabajar pops up yet again. At this point in the video, Javier points to the building where his father worked in the '50s:
Mi padre antiguamente en los años cincuenta este... trabajó acá en este edificio.
Long time ago, in the fifties, my father... worked here in this building.
Captions 73-74, Javier Marin - Artesano VenezolanoPlay Caption
One line later, Javier employs the synonymous (though less common) verb laborar to describe what his dad's job was:
Laboró como telegrafista con el... con el código morse.
He worked as a telegrapher with the... with the morse code.
Captions 76-77, Javier Marin - Artesano VenezolanoPlay Caption
To buy time while thinking of synonyms for oft-repeated words, you'll note that Javier says este... a lot. It's a verbal tic repeated all over Latin America -- on TV talk shows and radio interviews, for example. Non-native speakers who have the habit of saying "um" over and over might want to replace their um's with "este..." if they hope to be mistaken for a native Spanish speaker. You simply can't say "um" in the middle of a Spanish sentence without someone figuring out that you're not speaking your mother tongue.
...retirándole recursos locales y retirándole autonomía alimentaria y productiva a los agricultores.
...taking away local resources and taking away alimentary and productive autonomy from the farmers.
Captions 5-6, De consumidor a persona - Short FilmPlay Caption
The verb retirar has an array of meanings. Often, it means "to take away" or "to remove." Here, in Part 4 of the stirring documentary De consumidor a persona, we learn how farmers are having both their local resources and autonomy in food production taken away by multinational corporations.
Note that retirar is derived from the verb tirar ("to pull"), mentioned in this space just last week. As in English, the prefix re- can mean "back" in Spanish.
"¿Puedo retirar el plato?," a waitress in a restaurant might ask you at the end of a meal, referring to your empty plate. If you say yes, she'll take your plate back to the kitchen.
Here we have another use of retirar in Yago, a TV series from Argentina:
Señor... Usted no puede estar acá, se tiene que retirar.
Sir... You can't be here, you have to leave.
Caption 9, Yago - 10 EnfrentamientosPlay Caption
At the same time, retirar can also mean "to retire" -- an English cognate that's easy enough to remember. But note that retirar's synonym jubilar is often used instead to describe the act of retiring from the workplace, as in Venezuelan Javier Marin's description of his dad's retirement:
Laboró como telegrafista con el... con el código morse y actualmente se encuentra jubilado.
He worked as a telegrapher with the... with the morse code and currently he's retired.
Captions 76-78, Javier Marin - Artesano VenezolanoPlay Caption
"Se encuentra jubilado," ("He's retired,") Javier explains in Part 1 of his chat with us about jewelry-making.
Coming to us from Spain, Constantino Cuenca tells us a little bit about his family's business:
Es una champiñonera tradicional que estableció mi suegro.
It's a traditional mushroom farm that my father-in-law established.
Y fue familiarmente. Y ya ahora claro pues, mi suegro ya se ha jubilado.
And already now of course well, my father-in-law already has retired.
Captions 6-8, La Champiñonera El cultivo de champiñón - Part 1Play Caption
"Retired people" are referred to as jubilados -- doesn't that sound like a happy state to be in? Yes, through shared Latin roots, jubilar is related to "jubilant" in English.
Macho, si sobreviven los jubilados, ¿no va a sobrevivir un pibe?
Dude, if the retirees survive, isn't a kid going to survive?
Caption 47, Yago - 7 EncuentrosPlay Caption
Hemos volcado nuestra experiencia, nuestros estudios, nuestras investigaciones, nuestros recorridos por selvas, por sitios difíciles a veces...
We have used our experience, our studies, our research, our journeys in the jungles, in difficult places, sometimes...
Captions 9-10, Federico Kauffman Doig - ArqueólogoPlay Caption
The verb volcar literally means "to overturn," "to dump," "to knock over," etc. It is, however, often used figuratively. In the example above, Señor Doig is talking about those things that he and his fellow archeologists have "used," or "drawn upon." "We have used our experience, our studies, our research, our journeys in the jungle..." The mental image that the use of volcar might create here is that they have figuratively "dumped out" all the things they've learned over the years onto a big table -- sorted through and arranged them -- using them to write their books.
Busca un trabajo en el que pueda volcar toda su creatividad.
She is looking for a job where she can exploit all her creativity.
Volcar can also me "to be engrossed in," or "to be devoted to."
Está completamente volcado a su trabajo.
He is completely devoted to.
Iker Casillas, de la mano de la ONG Plan, con la que colabora, se han volcado en conseguir toda la ayuda posible para Haití.
Iker Casillas, hand in hand with the NGO Plan, with which he collaborates, have thrown themselves into obtaining all the help possible for Haiti.
Captions 2-3, Iker Casillas - apoya el trabajo de PlanPlay Caption
Pero la calle lo siguió jalando
But the streets kept pulling him back
Y de lo bueno ya no va quedando
And nothing good is being left
Captions 21-22, La Secta - ConsejoPlay Caption
The verb jalar means "to pull" and its use is common in many parts of Latin America. Miami-based La Secta, in their music video Consejo (which means "advice"), uses the verb in the phrase above, "But the street kept pulling him back."
If jalar means "to pull," why have we seen the command hale, with an h, printed on doors in countries like Venezuela and Mexico? Well, it turns out that halar also means "to pull," and when we boil down the evidence it seems that halar is basically the same verb, more or less, as jalar, but spelled with an h up front. Which spelling came first, which is more "correct," etc., seems to be up for debate, and also a matter of regional preference.
In Spain, we are likely to see tirar (which can mean "to pull") printed on one side of a door, and in Argentina we are likely to see the indicative form, tire. (By the way, most of these countries tend to agree that empuje or empujar, "to push," goes on the other side of these doors.)
Folks in Spain pretty much never use jalar for "to pull," however they do use it for "to eat," but only in very informal settings -- it can be considered a bit crude.
¿Quién se ha jalado todo el jamón?
Who has wolfed down all the ham?
Vamos a jalar. ¿Vienes con nosotros?
Let's go eat. You coming with us?
In parts of Central America, such as Nicaragua and Costa Rica, jalar can be used to mean "going out" or "dating."
Él y ella estan jalando.
He and she are dating.
You can read a long discussion on the regional uses of jalar, halar and tirar here.
Cuando callas otorgas...
When you keep silent, you consent...
Caption 10, Circo - Un AccidentePlay Caption
In the refrain to this catchy punk-pop hit, lead singer Fofé uses the common verb callar, which anyone who has ever annoyed their Spanish teacher knows means "to be quiet," "to keep silent" or, more bluntly, "to shut up." The next verb, otorgar, often means "to grant" [as in, permission] or "to award." There's an expression in Spanish: Quien calla otorga, which basically means "silence is consent" (or, "whoever is silent, consents"). So the refrain can be interpretted as "When you keep silent, you consent."
Incluso muchas veces me he tenido que... que callar porque...
Many times I even had to... to be quiet because...
porque no he tenido más remedio que reírme un poco.
because I didn't have any option but to laugh a little.
Captions 22-23, David Bisbal - Haciendo Premonición LivePlay Caption
No te puedo mentir, no me puedo callar
I can't lie to you, I can't shut up
Caption 11, Bloque - NenaPlay Caption
¿Te podés callar la boca? Mire, patrona, yo le voy a explicar.
Can you shut your mouth? Look, boss, I'm going to explain [it] to you.
Caption 51, Muñeca Brava - 44 El encuentroPlay Caption
Shut up! (singular)
Shut up! (plural)
Pero yo no me lo creo, así que decido hacer este documental. Con ánimo de lucro
But I don't believe it, so I decide to do this documentary. With Intent to Profit
Captions 26-27, Con ánimo de lucro - Cortometraje - Part 1Play Caption
Lucro means "gain" or "profit." Think "filthy lucre" as a mnemonic device.
Nosotros no somos coherentes si ponemos nuestro dinero primero, buscándole un gran lucro.
We're not being logical if we put our money first, looking for a big profit.
Captions 32-34, De consumidor a persona - Short Film - Part 6Play Caption
...si predomina la lógica del beneficio y del lucro sin límite.
...if the logic of benefit and unlimited profit predominates.
Caption 67, De consumidor a persona - Short Film - Part 7Play Caption
Frankly, it's a little surprising to have a documentary ostensibly about the quest to end poverty and hunger with the title Con ánimo de lucro ("With Intent to Profit" / i.e. "For-profit"). After all, to describe non-profit (or, not-for-profit) ventures in the Spanish-speaking world, the phrase "sin ánimo de lucro" (or, "sin fines de lucro") is commonly used... Well, future installments of this documental promise to explain this cryptic title.
Imagina acabar con el hambre y la pobreza.
Imagine putting an end to hunger and poverty.
Caption 1, Con ánimo de lucro - CortometrajePlay Caption
The short film titled Con ánimo de lucro starts with a series of commands reminiscent of the John Lennon song "Imagine." But what's that word after Imagina (the familiar command form of imaginar)? The short answer is that acabar means "to end" or "to finish."
Al final... Nuestro caso no es distinto de otros casos que acabaron mal
In the end... Our case is not different from other cases that ended badly
Captions 13-14, Victor & Leo - Recuerdos de amorPlay Caption
Se nos acabaron las galletitas.
We've run out of cookies.
We could end our discussion right there, but we won't because acabar can confuse non-native speakers in a variety of contexts. It's more widely used and has more shades of meaning than its synonym terminar (also "to end"). For example, you'll commonly hear acabar de mean "just" as in:
Con nuestro vino de autor lo acabamos de sacar al mercado y es un Quirus.
With our signature wine we have just put it on the market and it's a Quirus.Play Caption
Acabamos de terminar.
We just finished.
Acabo de enterarme que van a casarse.
I´ve just learned they are getting married.
Meanwhile, acabar por can mean "finally" as in:
Acabé por decirle la verdad.
I finally told him the truth.
Anda, ¡para! ¡ya! ¡Ya está, se acabó!
Come on, stop! Now! That's it, it's over!
Captions 28-29, Carolina - AcentosPlay Caption
¡No irás y se acabó!
You won´t go and that's that!
In some places, especially Argentina, acabar can mean "to have an orgasm," when used in the right context. This usage is colloquial but not considered terribly rude.
No se tenía porqué poner zapatos.
There was no need to wear shoes.
Caption 30, Federico Kauffman Doig - ArqueólogoPlay Caption
In this space, just two weeks ago, we discussed que ("that") and ¿qué? ("what?"), porque ("because") and ¿por qué? ("why?"). In these instances, the accent over the é turned a conjunction into an interrogation.
This week, the affable archaeologist Federico Kauffman Doig reminds us of another porqué, which is a noun that means the reason, cause or motive for something. Because it's a noun, porqué has a gender – masculine – and is often preceded by a definite (el, los) or indefinite article (un, unos).
Nadie sabe [el] porqué de su abandono.
Nobody knows the reason for its abandonment.
Caption 39, Querido México - TeotihuacánPlay Caption
Escuchar esta música en la voz de Alejandro nos hace recordar el porqué hacemos esto.
Listening to this music in Alejandro's voice makes us remember why (the reason) we do this.
Captions 12-13, Documental de Alejandro Fernandez - Viento A FavorPlay Caption
Los porqués son...
The reasons are...
Un porqué de...
A reason for....
So, take this hint if you want to ace a Spanish spelling bee (un concurso de deletreo): If porqué is used as a noun, it's always one word and has an accent over its é.
Lo que pretendemos es sembrar en la gente la actitud de reducir...
What we seek is to instill in the people the attitude of reducing...
Caption 1, De consumidor a persona - Short FilmPlay Caption
It's easy enough to guess the meaning of some Spanish verbs. Take the environmentally helpful trio reducir, reutilizar and reciclar, for example. If you guessed the three verbs mean "to reduce," "to reutilize" and "to recycle," respectively, you're right on. Because Spanish and English share so many Latin language roots, many words sound similar–in other words, they are cognates. But watch out for false cognates, also known as false friends. Two examples are the verbs atender and asistir. In Spanish, atender does not mean "to attend," but "to serve." Meanwhile, asistir does not mean "to assist" but "to attend."
Which brings us back to the quote above. False friend pretender commonly means "to try," "to seek" or "to be after." So, the sentence above can be translated as: "What we seek is to instill [literally, "to sow"] in the people the attitude of reducing...."
While pretender and "pretend" have common Latin roots, the use of the word in English to mean "to seek" or "to undertake" fell out of use many moons ago. (Note the archaic definition still stands in some English dictionaries, like this one.)
El gobierno pretende proteger los derechos de los trabajadores.
The government seeks (or tries) to protect the rights of the workers.
Este decreto en el cual el gobierno de España pretende cobrarnos un impuesto injusto, no tiene validez.
This decree, in which the government of Spain is attempting to charge us an unfair tax, is invalid.
Captions 12-13, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 9Play Caption
No pretendo ser tu dueño.
I don't want (or aspire) to be your master.
Yo no pretendo tener ninguna relación con ningún hombre después de Tomás.
I don't intend to have any relationship with any man after Tomas.
Caption 31, Yago - 11 PrisiónPlay Caption
¿Y qué pretendes que haga yo? Como si pudiera cambiar algo.
And what do you want me to do? As if I could change a thing.
¿Pretendes que vaya hasta allá a buscarla desnuda?
Do you expect me to go over there and get it naked?
Caption 27, Yago - 1 La llegadaPlay Caption
Pensamos que el agua, que el aire, que el suelo es nuestro y podemos hacer lo que nos dé la gana. No es cierto.
We think that the water, the air, the land is all ours and we can make what we feel like. That's not true.
Captions 10-13, De consumidor a persona - Short Film - Part 2Play Caption
Gana, meaning "wish" or "will," is a noun that plays a key role to express wishes or desires in Spanish. The expression darle (a alguien) la gana means "to feel like" or "to want to."
lo que me dé la gana
what I feel like
lo que te dé la gana
what you feel like
...y te puedes venir aquí cuando te dé la gana, ¿yo te voy a perdonar?
...and you can come here whenever you feel like it, I am going to forgive you?
Caption 22, Yago - 11 PrisiónPlay Caption
lo que le dé la gana
what you feel like / what he-she feels like
¡Salte de alegría cuando le dé la gana!
Jump for joy whenever you feel like it!
Caption 4, Kikirikí - AnimalesPlay Caption
lo que les dé la gana
what you [pl.] feel like / what they feel like
¿Hasta cuándo van a seguir haciendo lo que les dé la gana?
Until when are you guys going to keep doing whatever you [pl.] feel like?
Caption 42, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 3Play Caption
Even more common is the pairing of the verb tener ("to have") with the plural ganas, as in:
Tenía ganas de hacer algo, con eso y...
I wanted to do something, with it and...
Caption 68, Biografía - Natalia OreiroPlay Caption
Natalia is saying: "I wanted to do something with this." The word-for-word translation might have you thinking she had the will to do it, but common understanding is simply that she felt like it, or wanted to do it.
Tengo muchas ganas de aprender español.
I really want to learn Spanish.
A mí... yo tengo muchas ganas.
I... I really want to.
Caption 21, Amaya - Teatro romanoPlay Caption
No tengo ganas de parar ahora.
I don't want to stop now.
Gracias, Merycita, pero no tengo ganas de jugar.
Thank you, Merycita, but I don't feel like playing.
Caption 58, Club 10 - Capítulo 1Play Caption
Porque a mí me encanta la música francés y árabe, y yo no entiendo ni papa...
Because I love French [more correct: "música francesa"] and Arabic music, and I don't understand a word...
Captions 58-59, Si*Sé - EPKPlay Caption
When Carol C. of Si*Sé says with a shrug, yo no entiendo ni papa, it's easy enough for us to understand by the context that she doesn't understand a word. She could also have said no entiendo nada, which means "I don't understand anything." [Remember: you use the word nada ("nothing") instead of algo ("anything") after no in negative expressions in Spanish.]
But here singer C.C. chooses a common Spanish phrase for emphasis -ni papa. Ni means "not even" or "nor." That much is straightforward. But papa is one of those words with an almost comic array of meanings -from "Pope," as in más papista que el papa ("more papist than the Pope"), to "potato," as in papas fritas ("french fries"). Well, one of the many meanings of papa comes from the Latin "pappa" and it means "baby food," "mush," or "pulp." And that's the meaning most commonly associated with the phrase ni papa (literally: "not even mush").
No puedo ver ni papa.
I can't see a thing.
Él no sabe ni papa.
He doesn't know a thing.
Es una papa.
It's a piece of cake. [It's easily done/easily accomplished.]
No te preocupes por el examen, es una papa.
Don´t worry about the exam, it´s a piece of cake.
Y sembrar sus cositas por ahí... lo que da cebolla, tomate, al pimentón, el ají y otras cosas pues, por ahí.
And planting their little things around here... producing onion, tomato, red pepper, chili and other stuff, around here.
Captions 29-31, José Rodríguez - La FincaPlay Caption
Have you noticed that the verb dar, which we usually take to mean "to give" seems to be used a lot in reference to the growing of fruits and vegetables. Well it turns out that what is doing the "giving," and sometimes it is implied, sometimes more explicit, is la tierra, "the land." Here we find José Rodríguez talking about people in the area "planting their little things around here... producing onion, tomato, red pepper, chili peppers, and other things, around here."
It's not the first time we find dar used in this way. If we check back with our friend Rafael discussing Guatemala:
La tierra... la tierra de las verduras... porque ahí hay'... da buenas... verduras, como repollo, zanahoria, cebolla... tomate...
The land... the land of vegetables... because there are'... it [the land] produces good... vegetables, like cabbage, carrot, onion... tomato...
Captions 14-16, Rafael T. - Guatemala HermosaPlay Caption
Digamos en la costa, también da buenas frutas como la naranja, la sandía, la papaya, el melón... el coco.
Let's say in the coast, it also produces good fruit like oranges, watermelon, papaya, melon... coconut.
Captions 18-20, Rafael T. - Guatemala HermosaPlay Caption
Este año, mis tierras no han dado una buena cosecha.
This year, my lands didn't produce a good harvest.
In all of the examples above, dar takes a direct object ("cabbage", "oranges", etc.). However, the reflexive darse can be used as well, with no direct object, and the meaning is "to grow," or "to come up." (This "reflexive" usage, as per the examples below, is somewhat more common in Spain than Latin America.)
He plantado aquí tomates, pero no se dan.
I planted tomatoes here, but they aren't growing (or "aren't coming up").
Las palmeras no se dan en Noruega.
Palm trees don't grow in Norway.
Estas papayas no se dan en todo lado.
These papayas don't occur everywhere.Play Caption