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Temas

Desbordar: While playing soccer

Tratá siempre a desbordar y mandar centro, desbordar y mandar centro, ¿eh?
[Caption 2, Muñeca Brava > Pilot > 10]

If you clicked on the word desbordar in caption 2 while watching the 10th installment of Muñeca Brava, you saw the most common definition -"to flood"- pop up first from our Spanish-English dictionary. But desbordar doesn't only mean to flood. Not on the soccer field, for example. It also means "to surpass; to overwhelm" -or, even more sports-specifically, "to outplay." Looking at Latin American papers' sports pages (always filled with fútbol), you'll see desbordar is a favorite verb among sportswriters. For example: Desbordar a sus rivales means "to outplay their rivals."

Back to our first scene in Muñeca Brava, the good Father/coach is directing a young player to "always try to overtake your opponent and send the ball to the center, overtake him and send it center, eh?" Sounds easier said than done.

Note: Even our native speakers aren't 100% in agreement if the priest is talking about overtaking the ball, overtaking the player, or simply "outplaying" the opposing player.
One native thought he was talking about "faking" a move, but we can't get agreement on that -- the distinction probably wasn't important to the tv writers, who perhaps just were aiming for some "coach talk."

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Despiole, Pavadas, and Tomarse el Olivo: A mess of olives and turkeys?

On the estancia in Provócame, there's an obvious and deep class divide between the wealthy landowners and the support staff that takes care of all their horses and messes. Toti, the goofy stablehand sporting a gaucho cap, is definitely of the lower class. He speaks in a way they don't teach you in school. When Toti gossips with a fellow staffer and her daughter, some knowledge of local slang is needed.

Sí, se tomó el olivo
[Caption 22, Provócame > Pilot > 14]

No sabés el despiole que hay en esa casa...
[Caption 23, Provocome > Pilot > 14]

So, what did he say? Se tomó el olivo literally means "She took the olive," but the slangy significance, which is made clear to all in the context, is that the would-be bride "took off--skadoodled".

Toti calls the resulting scene a despiole, which is a slangy way of saying
"mess" (lío or desorden). [Note Toti also uses this distinctly Argentine word in Part 6, so it might be a favorite of his.]

era esa pavadita venía a contar...
caption 24, Provocome > Pilot > 14

Pavo, you may have discovered one Thursday in late November (if you're a yank), is "turkey," a pavero is a "turkey farmer" and a pavada is a "flock of turkeys," but figuratively una pavada is "a silly thing." So when Toti says era esa pavadita venía a contar... he is telling Marisol and Julieta "that was the silly little thing I came to tell." [Che, there's contar again!]

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Contar: Counting and Recounting

Y yo te voy a contar lo que pienso hacer con el empleo nuevo.
[Caption 17, Muñeca Brava > Pilot > 9]

...este historia que voy a contar
[Caption 2,
Rafael T. - Journey North]


Contar, such an interesting verb, shows up in three of our new videos, but used in different ways. One of the most common meanings is of contar is "to tell" or "to relate." So, in Muñeca Brava, when Federico's cuñado says ...and yo te voy a contar lo que pienso hacer con el empleo nuevo, we translate it as "and I'm going to tell you what I have in mind for the new job."

Likewise, when our friend Rafael, in his monologue Journey North, says ...este historia que voy a contar, he is talking about relating his tale, "...this story that I am going to tell."


Rafael also consistently uses contar where we might have expected to hear a form of tener (to have), but when he does so he couples it with the preposition con.

cuando uno ya cuenta con familia...
[Caption 10, Rafael T. - Journey North
]

Yo cuento con una farmacia...
[Caption 15,
Rafael T. - Journey North]

When he tells us cuando uno ya cuenta con familia, he means "when one has [a] family" and when he says Yo cuento con una farmacia... we translate it as "I have a pharmacy."

¿Entonces puedo contar contigo para eso?
[Caption 49, Provócame > Pilot > 14
]

Of course, the first dictionary definition of contar is "to count," as in contando ovejas when you have insomnio . You can also count on someone or something to perform in a certain way for you, and for this we once again find contar+con. When Chayanne asks ¿...puedo contar contigo para eso?, he doesn't want to know "...can I have you for this," but rather, "...can I count on you for this?"

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Nena: Not just for babies

nena, nena... nena, nena... nena, nena... nena, nena....
[Caption 17, Bloque > Nena
]

Anyone who sees the video Nena by the Colombian band Bloque, even once, will be quite certain that the word nena means "baby." It can also be translated "babe," as in, "hey babe, get me a beer." Nena is the feminine form of nene, which has the same meaning but is used when referring to a male. Try these out next time you encounter an actual bebé (or when you need un trago.)

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Estudiantil: Catching authentic Spanish mistakes

Remember, amigos, we present you with authentic Spanish here at LoMásTv, and Taimur is a second grader auténtico, which means our young friend is entitled to make a grammatical mistake or two himself, ¿verdad? (Not to mention that Spanish is also his second language.)

In caption 16 of "Taimur Sings" he says Soy muy estudiantil, and, similarly, you may have noted that in "Taimur Talks" he states yo soy muy estudiante. It's clear that Taimur enjoys school and studies hard, and no doubt his teachers and parents notice that él es un estudiante muy estudioso ("He is very studious student").


The word estudiante is the noun for "student," so Taimur probably should have said Soy un buen estudiante, "I'm a good student." Or he might have chosen to tell us Yo soy muy estudioso, "I am very studious."

The word estudiantil is the adjective for "student," so a student run organization is an organización estudiantil, students who travel are engaging in turismo estudiantil, between classes young scholars might relax in a sálon estudiantil, and students who protest, if they have an effective leader, might create a full-fledged movimiento estudiantil.

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"Se"+indirect object+verb+direct object: Accidental grammar

Se te acabó el tiempo, Milagros
[Caption 34, Muñeca Brava > Pilot > 8]

Is there anything scarier than finding an angry nun in your room late at night? In this installment of Muñeca Brava, our heroine Milagros encounters a stern Mother Superior back in her room at the orphanage after sneaking out for some night-clubbing. The nun disregards the girl’s flimsy excuses and says ominously: "Se te acabó el tiempo, Milagros."

-The declaration means: “You’ve run out of time, Milagros.” But if you look at the construction “se te acabó -from the reflexive verb acabársele (to run out of)- it more literally means “Time has run out on you.”

We find something similar going on in caption 17 of Taimur Talks.

esos se me echaron a perder...
[Caption 17, taimur > Taimur Talks]

Our friend-for-life Taimur is tellling us "those got destroyed (on me)" or "those got wrecked (on me)." Like the good monja above, he might have put the subject last, had he wanted to: Se me echaron a perder mis cosas ("My things got wrecked").

These are examples of a special se construction used to describe unplanned or accidental occurences in Spanish. As a rule, the se + me, te, le, les or nos (indirect object) + verb construction describes occurrences that happen "to someone" (a alguien). The verb agrees with what in English is the thing acted upon (the direct object) because in Spanish that thing becomes the subject, that which is doing the action. No need to get mired in grammar, just have a look at these other examples and it should start to soak in.

Se nos está acabando el pan. (acabársele)
"We’re running out of bread. / The bread is running out on us."

Se me rompieron los anteojos. (rompérsele)
"I (accidently) broke my glasses. / My glasses broke on me."

De repente, a Pablo se le ocurrió una idea. (ocurrírsele)
"
Suddenly, an idea ocurred to Pablo.
"

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Tirarse todo el ropero encima: Overdressed

se tiró todo el ropero encima...
[Caption 37, Prov
ócame - Pilot - Part 12]

The scene is a high society wedding. Two women are talking conspiratorially. A third woman walks by, they say "Hi" but then quickly comment and giggle to each other. You know they just said something catty, but what was it? Here's the replay: "¿Está Loca? Se tiró todo el ropero encima." ("Is she crazy? She threw on her whole wardrobe.") In all likelihood the victim of this verbal assault was not wearing everything she owned. However, with her estola ("stole"), joyas de oro ("gold jewelry") and vestido sin tirantes ("strapless dress"), the gossips want to say that she is overdressed

 

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Pa': A shortcut for "Para"

...vine pa' 'cá...
caption 11, Interviews > Taimur Talks

...voy pa' allá...
caption 20, Interviews > Taimur Talks

Outside a Spanish classroom -say, on the streets or on the radio- it's very common to hear pa' in place of para ("for, towards, to a destination"). Interviewing young Taimur in a middle class neighborhood of Coro, Venezuela, a whole series of pa' pa' pa's are heard to drive home the point. "Vine pa' 'cá" ("Vine para acá") means "I came [to] here." "Voy pa' allá" means "I'll go [to] there." In both cases, pa' indicates the destination.

Looking for other examples? In the intro to Shakira's ubiquitous song La Tortura, "pa' ti" is the fast way to say "for you." In fact, if you search for "pa' 'cá," "pa' allá" or "pa' ti" on the Internet, you'll be inundated with letras (song lyrics) from the Spanish-speaking parts of the Caribbean down to the tip of Chile and even over in Spain.

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Casting: A word as Spanish as English

...lo que hoy llamamos castings...
[caption 17, Biografía > Muñeca Brava's Natalia Oreiro > Part 3]

In this chapter of the life of actress Natalie Oreiro, the English word "casting" or plural "castings" is heard not once, but four times. (Note that casting's 'i' follows its Spanish pronunciation rules and is pronounced like a long "e" in English, kind of like "casteeng.") In our Spanish-to-Spanish dictionary, casting (noun) is defined as "selección de personas para actuar en una película, un anuncio publicitario, etc." In other words, it's similar to its Hollywood meaning.

"Casting" is but one of the many English words creeping into Spanish dictionaries these days. In Natalie's native Uruguay, one may go to el shopping (the shopping center, or, mall) to buy un smoking (a smoking jacket) to wear for el casting (the casting call). In each of these cases, the "-ing" word is considered a masculine noun in Spanish, even if it's English equivalent started as an adjective modifying another noun.

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—azo: a painful suffix

Es como un piedrazo en la cabeza.
[caption 26, Verano Eterno > Fiesta Grande > Part 6]

That's gotta hurt. In Spanish, the suffix azo can signify a blow by the object at the root of the word. So, piedrazo means a blow by a piedra, or stone. By this logic:

Bala -> "bullet"
Balazo -> "blow by a bullet; a gunshot wound."

Codo -> "elbow"
Codazo -> "blow by an elbow; nudge
."

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Por y Para: Learning through love

One way to make a TV themesong irresistibly catchy is through repetition. In Chayanne's themesong for Provócame, it works. Take these two lines:

Por amor
Por amar
[Captions 9-10 and 12-13, Provócame > Pilot > 11]

The straightforward translation is: "For love / For loving." Amor is a noun meaning "love." Meanwhile, change one letter and amar is the infinitive "to love." In Spanish, the infinitive is often used the way we in English use the gerund (with the -ing ending). For example, "I like singing" is translated as Me gusta cantar in proper Spanish.

Ok. You probably figured out quickly that the repeated por here means "for" in English. But it's a little more complicated than that. You see, there are two words that both mean "for" in Spanish: Por and para. Por can mean "for the sake of, in the cause of, or, by means of," while para can mean "with the destination of, or, in order to." In Chayenne's lyrics, por amor can be translated as "for love" in the sense of "for the sake of love" [like we saw in last week's newsletter, with por amor, usa forro ("for the sake of love, use a condom")]. That's straightforward. But some might argue Chayenne is taking a little bit of poetic license when he says por amar ("for the sake of loving") in instead of para amar, ("in order to love"), which is a more common construction with the infinitive of a verb. But, really, it works both ways - and it certainly sounds catchier with the repeated por.

Hablar por hablar.
"To talk for the sake of talking."

Aprender español para hablarlo.
"To learn Spanish in order to speak it."

You want more? See Por y Para at http://spanish.about.com/cs/grammar/a/porpara.htm

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Forro: A word as useful as a lifesaver

¿Pero te ponés otro forro?
[Caption 36, Disputas > La Extraña Dama > 11]

But can you put on another what?

Many of you would be more familiar with the word condón or preservativo, two synonyms for forro in this context. In a dictionary, you'll find that forro more innocently means "cover, case or interior lining" of a ski jacket or waterproof luggage, say. But in an Argentine bedroom, forro usually refers to a "condom," as it does in this line from the show Disputas.

What's more, Graffiti all over Buenos Aires declares: Por amor usá forro -- "For love's sake, use a condom" -- as part of a grassroots campaign promoting safe sex. Another slogan in the fight against AIDS -- No seas forro, usá forro -- points to an alternate meaning of forro in local slang: "idiot."

An aside: X Amor is short for por amor because "x" is familiar to us all as the multiplication sign, and when you multiply in Spanish, you say dos por dos for "2 x 2." In a similar vein, Lo+Tv works for us because "2 + 2" is dos más dos. Keep your eyes open and you may notice lo+ used casually in place of lo más throughout the Spanish speaking world.

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Atinar: Attaining the right meaning

With Germain de la Fuente's old-style crooning in Como Quisiera Decirte, you just know he's gotta be singing about heartache. But what is he saying exactly?

...y así va pasando el tiempo,
sin atinar a decirte,
lo que a diario voy sintiendo...

Caption 16, Los Tetas - Como Quisiera Decirte

You see, the verb atinar is translated as "to be able to" / "being able to." But there's an added dose of longing and frustration attached to atinar, compared to, say, poder or even ser capaz de. Atinar often appears as part of the phrase atinar a decir and suggests the need to speak up to resolve a pressured situation -una situación de presión. One synonym is lograr, in the sense of "to manage to." Dictionaries also suggest: acertar [a], dar [en el blanco], conseguir, hallar and encontrar.

It has been suggested that atinar shares roots with the verb adivinar, "to divine or guess correctly." However, most linguists would agree that there's no easy direct translation into English for this verb, which takes on many meanings and variations that non-natives will tend to absorb naturally as they encounter them in context.

Se fue tan rápido que no atiné a decirle que se olvidó sus maletas.
"He left so fast that I didn't have the chance to tell him he forgot his suitcases."

Esta fue una inversión atinada, ganamos mucho dinero.
"This was a good (smart) investment; we earned a lot of money."

El examen es "multiple choice." Espero poder atinar las respuestas.
"The exam is multiple choice. I hope I can guess the right answers."

An aside: This is not Germain de la Fuente's first brush with rap. The Chilean singer's romantic warbling has also appeared in songs by the Beastie Boys and Jay-Z

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Agradecer: "Thanks" as a verb

Te lo agradezco.
[Caption 17, Muñeca Brava > Pilot > 6]

Little doubt one of the things you say frequently when you have the occasion to speak Spanish is gracias (thanks) and muchas gracias (many thanks), but have you ever tried using the verb agradecer (to thank)? When Federico is explaining to his secretary-cum-sous-chef about how much she brings his groove back, she does not say simply gracias but rather (and somewhat cynically, we might add) te lo agradezco or "I thank you (for it)." It's slighly more formal, but not radically so.

Agradecemos a todos los presentes por asistir a esta reunion.
"We thank all present for attending this meeting."

Les agradezco su ayuda.
"I thank you all for your help."

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Arrancar: An alternative to "empezar"

y así arrancaba...
[caption 13, Los Pericos > Complicado]

If we speak English, it's easy to remember that comenzar means to "to start" because it sounds like "to commence." Empezar (to begin, to start) is so commonly used that most people learn it early on in their studies. But what about arrancar (which also means "to uproot", "to pull up")? Did you realize that this verb can mean "to start" as well? If so, you may have heard it used it in reference to starting the engine of a car, but it also can be found in a variety of contexts related to "starting." In the lyrics of the song Complicado we find the line y así arrancaba, "and this is how it was starting..."

Ya volvimos de las vacaciones pero ahora nos cuesta arrancar.
"We´ve just returned from vacation and now it´s hard for us to start working."

Arrancá, el semáforo ya está en verde.
"Go, the light has now turned green."

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Hacer Pata: To cover for someone

Haceme pata con la amiguita.
[caption 29, Muñeca Brava > Pilot > 6]

Pata can signify "paw" or "leg," but in this case hacer pata is an expression that means "to support someone" or "to cover for someone." So when Facundo Arana says haceme pata con la amiguita, his friend "covers" (diverts) the other girl while he tries to make his move on Natalia Oreiro. Note that the diminutive of amiga is not amigita, but rather amiguita, just as the diminutive of hormigais hormiguita.

Haceme la pata con el jefe, porque hoy no puedo ir a trabajar.
"Cover for me with the boss, because I can't go to work today."

Haceme pata con Juan, ¡él es perfecto para mí!
"Put in a a good word for me with Juan, he is perfect for me!"

Note: Because the video discussed is Argentine, these examples contain the "voseo" form of the affirmative imperative conjugation of the verb hacer.

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Atar y Desatar: Fasten, Unfasten, and Relieve

me lo voy a atar...
[Caption 14, Disputas > La Extraña Dama > 10]

después lo vamos a desatar...
[caption 15, Disputas > La Extraña Dama > 10]

y desaté mi alivio.
[caption 15, Los Pericos > Complicado]

Atar and desatar are two nicely opposing verbs which mean "to fasten" and "to unfasten." They can be very useful, but are often unknown by Spanish learners. This week in part 10 of Disputas, La Extraña Dama, when Majo and Gloria's new friend says me lo voy a atar..., he is referring to his pants, "I am going to fasten them." (Note that he uses the singular el pantalón to refer to a single pair of "pants"?) Likewise in the next caption we find después lo vamos a desatar "later we will unfasten them" (still referring to his pants).

The verb desatar shows up again in the music video Complicados from the band Los Pericos. Here it takes on a more of a figurative meaning, "to unleash," as in "unleashing an emotion." Caption 15 of the song contains the line desaté mi alivio, which is "I unleashed my relief." It is a bit unusual to speak of "unleashing relief," but we can chalk this up to artistic license. As in English, it is usually anger that one "unleashes."

Desaté mi furia, y, después, tuve alivio.
"I unleashed my anger, and, later, I was relieved."

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Agarrarte: Grab some new Spanish knowledge

The verb coger (to take/ to grab) is commonly used in Spain, but, in Latin America, the same verb often has sexual connotations. To avoid confusion and any possible misunderstanding, Latin Americans tend to use the verb agarrar, not coger, when they wish to express "to take" or "to grab" (likewise elegir, not escoger, for "to choose" and levantar, not recoger, for "to pickup").

Agarrate el vinito que está en la cocina.
[Caption 40, Disputas > La Extraña Dama > 9]

Had her new actor friend told Gloria Cógete el vinito que está en la cocina she would have understood it properly, "Grab the wine that's in the kitchen," but it would have sounded a bit odd to her, as she is South American, not a Spaniard. Note that her host appends the reflexive te to his command agarra, "grab." Had he not done so and said Agarrá el vino... instead of Agarrate el vino, the meaning would have been the same, "Grab the wine...," but it may have come across as rude and bossy as opposed to inviting and playful. He also softens his tone by using the diminutive vinito (little wine) instead of simply vino.

No, en serio te lo digo, Gloria, porque te agarra un psicópata...
[caption 10, Disputas > La Extraña Dama > 9]

Literally, porque te agarra un psicópata... is "because a psychopath grabs you..." but this is not exactly what Majo is expressing. What Majo is saying is more like "because [if] you're stuck with a psychopath" as in "if you had the bad luck of getting a psycho as a client...."

Si te agarra un profesor listo, vas a aprender la lección.
"If you get a clever professor, you are going to learn the lesson."

Me agarré un resfrío.
"I caught a cold."

Si Juan se entera que le fuiste infiel, ¡agarrate!
"If Juan finds out you cheated on him, watch out!"
[colloquial]

Cuando lo agarre, lo mato.
"When I put my hands on him, I'll kill him."
[It is uncertain, hence the use of the subjunctive [yo] agarre.]

Si te agarra sueño, acostate temprano.
"If you get sleepy, go to bed early."

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