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How to say professions in Spanish

Do you know how to say words like lawyer or journalist in Spanish? Today, we will talk about job titles and professions in Spanish so get ready to see how to write and pronounce some of the most common occupations out there. However, before we jump into the list of professions, let's see how to ask a very basic question when it comes to jobs. 

 

"What do you do?" in Spanish

When we want to find out what someone does for a living, we usually use questions like: what do you do for work?, what do you do for a living? or simply, what do you do? There are also different options in Spanish:

 

¿A qué te dedicas? Soy profesor de fotografía.

What do you do? I'm a photography teacher.

Captions 12-13, 75 minutos Gangas para ricos - Part 5

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Oye, y ¿en qué trabajas? Estoy trabajando actualmente en una firma de abogados.

Hey, and what do you do [for a living]? I'm working currently at a law firm.

Captions 82-83, Ricardo La compañera de casa - Part 1

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Ahora, ¿y qué haces tú? Bueno, yo soy mecánico.

Now, what do you do? Well, I'm a mechanic.

Captions 18-19, Encuentro Volkswagen en Adícora Escarabajos en la playa - Part 1

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You can also use that kind of question even if you are a student:

 

Bueno, Cristina, ¿tú a qué te dedicas? Estoy estudiando en Sevilla.

Well, Cristina, what do you do for a living? I am studying in Seville.

Captions 60-62, Clara y Cristina Saludar

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Common professions in Spanish (masculine and feminine)

Now, let's take a look at some of the most common professions in Spanish. Remember to listen to the audioclips so you can hear how to pronounce the word. Also, keep in mind that the names of most professions change with the gender so make sure to take a look at the rules that we will mention about that.

 

Rule 1 - Professions ending in o and a

When the masculine noun ends in o, the feminine noun ends in a. There are several professions in Spanish that fall into this group:

 

1. El abogado | La abogada (The lawyer)

Es un abogado joven que recién se está metiendo en la política.

He's a young lawyer who has recently been getting involved in politics.

Caption 57, Muñeca Brava 45 El secreto - Part 5

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2. El arquitecto | La arquitecta (The architect)

Bueno, yo soy Leif, eh... soy arquitecto y llevo trabajando en Londres cuatro años.

Well, I am Leif, um... I am an architect and have been working in London for four years.

Captions 2-3, Leif El Arquitecto Español y su Arte - Part 1

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3. El cajero | La cajera (The cashier)

4. El carpintero | La carpintera (The carpenter)

5. El ingeniero | La ingeniera (The engineer)6

6. El psicólogo | La piscóloga (The psychologist)

 

Rule 2 - Professions ending in a consonant

When the noun ends in a consonant, you just need to add an a at the end to form the feminine noun.

 

7. El administrador | La administradora (The administrator)

pero si quiere, yo con mucho gusto hablo con el administrador para que nos ayude.

but if you want, I'll gladly talk to the administrator so he can help us.

Captions 16-17, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 3 - Part 3

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8. El director | La directora (The director)

9. El editor | La editora (The editor)

 

10. El doctor | La doctora (The doctor)

Consultorio de la doctora Castaño, buenos días.

Doctor Castaño's office, good morning.

Caption 5, Cita médica La cita médica de Cleer - Part 1

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If you take the previous 3 nouns, you can see that there are various nouns ending in 'or' that are identical in English and Spanish.

 

11. El escritor | La escritora (The writer)

 

12. El profesor | La profesora (The teacher)

Yo soy profesora de español,

I am a Spanish teacher,

Caption 12, El Aula Azul Actividades Diarias

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Rule 3 - Professions ending in -ista, -ia and -e

There are also some nouns that end in -ista, -ia and -e, that stay them same for both male and female. However, in order to make the distinction, you need to change the article accordingly. Let's see some examples:

 

13. El estudiante | La estudiante (The student)

 

14. El dentista | la dentista (The dentist)

Por ejemplo: el estudiante, la estudiante. El dentista, la dentista.

For example: the male student, the female student. The male dentist, the female dentist.

Captions 32-33, Isabel El Género Gramatical - Masculino y Femenino

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15. El periodista | La periodista (The journalist)

"El periodista escribe el artículo para el periódico".

"The journalist writes the article for the newspaper."

Caption 22, Lecciones con Carolina La voz pasiva - Part 3

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That's it for today. We know there are hundreds of more occupations and job titles out there. However, we hope this lesson will help you to remember the names of some of the most well-known occupations in Spanish. Try to find 10 professions more and don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.

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Top 10 Argentinian slang words you need to know

Argentina shares borders with Brazil, Chile, Bolivia and Paraguay, which means that, geographically speaking, it is separated from many of the other Spanish-speaking countries. This is important for understanding why Spanish from Argentina is a bit different from that of other countries and how the influence of Portuguese and Italian (from the massive immigration at the beginning of the 20th century) shaped Argentine Spanish.

With that being said, let's take a look at some of the most popular Argentine slang words and terms:

 

1. Guacho  (Meaning: Orphan)

It’s a term that seems to come from wakcha in Quechua, the language spoken by the indigenous people in Cuzco, Perú. In Argentina and many other countries, it’s a derogatory word used to describe someone who has lost both their parents.

No, no, no, no tiene padres, es guacha. -¡Padre!

No no, no, she hasn't got parents, she's a bastard. -Father!

Caption 11, Muñeca Brava 1 Piloto - Part 1

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2. Mina (Meaning: Girl)

The term comes from the old lunfardo [criminal slang tango composers used in many of their lyrics] and contrary to what most people think it’s not a derogatory term although it’s not a word you’d use in environments of respect such as your workplace, university or at a doctor’s office.

¿No viste esa mina?

Did you see that chick?

Caption 35, Muñeca Brava 1 Piloto - Part 6

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3. Dar bola (Meaning: Pay attention) 

The origin of the expression is unclear. The most widely accepted story is that comes from the 1920s in Argentina, when students playing hookey would go to the bars to play pool. Since most of them were new players, and the risk of them tearing the green felt surface of the pool table increased with every kid who arrived, the waiters were given the order “not to give them balls” which was also a way to “ignore” them. So today, used in its negative form, it means “to ignore” and used in its affirmative form it means just the opposite “to pay attention”.

Pero si a vos no te dio bola. ¿Qué te importa?

But she didn't even look at you. What do you care?

Caption 7, Muñeca Brava 1 Piloto - Part 7

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4. Boludo (Meaning: Fool, idiot, dude)

Boludo is a former insult that has been misused so much that it has become something else. The origin of this word (that can be used as an adjective or noun) lies in the term bolas (balls) and yes, someone boludo is someone with big balls. It’s not clear why it has been used to describe a fool, though. However, in Argentina almost every informal sentence has the word boludo or boluda in it. It has become a way to address someone you are very, very familiar with.

Sí, pero a veces se cae uno a la tierra, boludo, y camina.

Yes, but sometimes one falls to the earth, idiot, and walks.

Caption 39, Muñeca Brava 48 - Soluciones - Part 4

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5. Chirusa (Meaning: Vulgar woman)

It’s an old term that has its origins in the 1920s. It's a derogative way to call women of lower classes and/or those women whose lack of manners make them look like someone from a lower class. There’s a Tango song called “Chirusa” about a poor woman who fell in love with a rich man who was only toying with her. In Muñeca Brava, Milagros is considered a chirusa because of her status as a maid at a manor full of rich people.

¿Qué es chirusa? Y, se podría considerar una mujer vulgar.

What is chirusa? And, it could be considered a vulgar woman.

Captions 45-46, Carlos y Cyndy Comentario sobre Muñeca Brava

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6. Bailanta (Meaning: Club/Discotheque)

The bailanta is a discotheque where they play cumbia, and other kinds of tropical music. In Argentina, people who go to the bailanta are considered of a lower class. As it happens in the episodes of Muñeca Brava, Mili goes to the bailanta because she likes the kind of popular music they play there and also the social environment of the place.

 

You can see that Ivo is disgusted by it because he comes from a wealthy family and probably goes dancing at other discotheques where they play electronic music or other kinds of tunes associated with a higher socio-cultural level.

Tranquilizate. Vamos a la bailanta, loco.

Calm down. Let's go the club, man.

Caption 71, Muñeca Brava 18 - La Apuesta - Part 2

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7. Colectivo (Meaning: Bus)

The origin of the word colectivo comes from the early days of taxicabs. When, because of the economy, taxis became too expensive for a large portion of the population, they put in place a sort of carpooling service where two or more strangers would share the ride and split the cost. As more and more people began sharing the same taxi, transportation companies saw this trend as an opportunity and built larger taxicabs which they called colectivo coming from the word “collective” since they transported a group of people in them.

 

In Argentine slang, another way to refer to the colectivo is bondi. Since the colectivo is one of the least expensive ways to travel, a recently founded airline in Argentina named themselves “flybondi” and offer low-cost flights within Argentina.

No crea, ¿eh? En bondi, eh... en colectivo, llego al toque.

Not really, huh? By bondi [slang for "bus"], um... by bus, I get here in a jiffy.

Caption 32, Muñeca Brava 47 Esperanzas - Part 6

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8. Che (Meaning: Hey)

Argentinians use the word che in almost every sentence. It's an interjection with no specific meaning, used to get someone's attention. It is unclear where the word comes from, although there are several theories. Some people say it comes from the Mapuches indigenous people, in whose language che means “person”.

 

Another theory suggests it comes from the sound someone makes when they want to be heard, very similar to the “pstt” but more like “chh”.  Che is used during conversations (never in formal speech) the same way you would use the word “hey!” or at the end of the sentence, as a tag, in a conversation.

Che boluda... ¿qué te pasa? Estás como loca hoy.

Hey silly [potentially insulting, not amongst close friends]... what's up? Today you're like crazy.

Caption 3, Cuatro Amigas Piloto - Part 3

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9. Rajar (Meaning: To fire someone / To leave)

Rajar connotes urgency. When people use rajar at the moment of firing an employee or when they ask somebody to leave, the idea is to do it “immediately.” Let's see an example:

"La voy a hacer rajar". "Rajar", ¿qué significa? Significa "la voy a hacer echar". -Mmm.

"La voy a hacer rajar." "Rajar," what does it mean? It means "I'm going to get her fired." -Mmm.

Captions 72-74, Carlos y Cyndy Comentario sobre Muñeca Brava

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10. Arrugar (Meaning: To get scared / get cold feet)

The term arrugar literally means “to wrinkle”. In the context of physical combat, when one of the fighters gets scared, insecure or for any reason doesn’t want to fight, you can easily compare their body language to the action of wrinkling. Today in Argentina the term is used for any situation, not only physical combat. It’s mostly used when somebody dares another person to do something and they agree at the beginning but change their minds at the last minute.

Vine porque tengo muchísimas ganas de cobrar mi apuesta. ¿Qué apuesta? ¿No me digas que arrugaste?

I came because I'm eager to collect my bet. What bet? Don't tell me you're backing out?

Captions 10-12, Verano Eterno Fiesta Grande - Part 8

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Wiht this last term, we have arrived to the end of this lesson about top Argentinian slang and idiomatic expressions. Now that you’re ready to walk around the streets of Buenos Aires we want to leave you with a final challenge. Do you understand the meaning of the following sentence?: 

 

¡Che, boludo, ese colectivo nos lleva a la bailanta! No arrugues ahora, que vamos a conocer muchas minas.

 

We hope you enjoy this lesson and don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.

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The word bajo as a preposition (And so much more)!

As a beginner Spanish student, the word bajo may well be among the first words one learns, typically as an adjective meaning “short.” However, like many words in Spanish, this word has a whole plethora of meanings and can additionally function as a preposition, adverb, noun, and even a verb!

 

Let’s start by examining the use of the word bajo as a preposition. Although its translation is almost always “under” or “below,” like its English equivalent, this could refer not only to physical location, but also to the state of being subject to some influence. Let’s take a look at the following examples from our Yabla Spanish library.

 

One possible meaning of the preposition bajo is "in a position below something else":

 

pero no entiendo qué hace mi amiga un día de semana bajo este árbol tan maravilloso.

but I don't understand what is my friend doing on a weekday under this wonderful tree.

Captions 4-5, Escribiendo un libro Algunos consejos sobre cómo comenzar - Part 1

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Another, similar meaning of “bajo,” which also involves location, suggests that something is beneath the surface or covered by something: 

 

Tengo aquí bajo mi almohada tu fotografía

I have your picture here under my pillow

Caption 20, La Oreja de Van Gogh Inmortal

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Moving on to uses of the preposition bajo not involving location, like “under” in English, bajo could also express the concept of being less than:

 

congelando lo que es la punta de la botella en una solución que está a diez o quince grados bajo cero.

freezing the tip of the bottle in a solution that is ten or fifteen degrees below zero.

Captions 33-34, Europa Abierta Champagne en Andalucía

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The Spanish preposition bajo could additionally mean "in accordance with" or "subject to the terms of," for example, some agreement:

 

Algunos clientes bajo contrato, le pre-maduramos la fruta

[For] some customers under contract, we pre-ripen the fruit

Caption 99, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 18

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And finally, although we have only touched on some of its many nuanced meanings, we’ll take a look at an example in which the preposition bajo entails being managed or governed by something:

 

Para su información, todo el personal de servicio está bajo mi mando, ¿sí?

For your information, all the service staff is under my authority, right?

Caption 49, Muñeca Brava 3 Nueva Casa - Part 8

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Now, let’s look at bajo as an adjective. Its most common translations are “short” or “low,” both in terms of height or level and in reference to intensity or morality. Here are some examples from the Yabla Spanish video library: 

 

Y es muy gracioso porque Pedro es todo lo contrario de Carolina. Es bajo, es gordo,

And it's very funny because Pedro is totally the opposite of Carolina. He's short, he's fat,

Captions 32-33, El Aula Azul Mis Primos

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Desde chiquito el bajo mundo conocía

Since he was a child, he knew the underworld

Caption 4, La Secta Consejo

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Se manifestaban porque el sueldo era muy bajo,

They were on strike because their salary was very low,

Caption 33, Con ánimo de lucro Cortometraje - Part 4

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As an adverb, bajo could also be translated as “low” in some cases (for example, when describing a helicopter flying “low”) or “softly” or “quietly” when referring to one’s speech:

 

¡Que le quede claro! -¡Shhhhh, habla bajo!

Let that be clear to you! -Shhhhh, speak quietly!

Caption 42, Yago 7 Encuentros - Part 2

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Much more straightforwardly, as a noun, the word bajo refers to the musical instrument, the bass: 

 

Entonces yo dije: "Yo... yo puedo tocar... Yo puedo tocar el bajo."

So, I said, "I... I can play... I can play the bass."

Caption 50, Carli Muñoz Niñez - Part 2

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And finally, it is worth noting that bajo is the first person singular, present tense conjugation of the verb “bajar” (to go or come down or get off or out).

 

Ya está, la comida... -Sí, sí, sí, ya, yo ya bajo.

It's ready, the food... -Yes, yes, yes, now, I'm coming down now.

Caption 72, Muñeca Brava 44 El encuentro - Part 6

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We hope that this lesson has shed light on some of the ways the word bajo can function as a preposition - in addition to a noun, verb, adjective or adverb! If you would like to see many additional examples in context, simply enter the word bajo in the search bar at the top of the Videos page to find matches in the transcripts of the Yabla Spanish library. And don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.

 

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How to write and use the prefix super in Spanish

Let's start this lesson with a little quiz. Do you know how to write superhero in Spanish? Choose one of the following:

 

a. Super héroe

b. Superhéroe

c. Súper héroe

d. Súperheroe

 

If you don't know the answer, this lesson will help you to find out which one is the proper spelling.

 

The meaning of the prefix super in Spanish

 

When it works as a prefix, the word super has different meanings. Sometimes, it means 'above' like in the word superestructura (superstructure). It can also mean 'excellence' or 'superiority':

 

¿Con el superagente, Jaime Suárez?

With the super-agent, Jaime Suarez?

Caption 53, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 3 - Part 13

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In some words, the prefix super expresses the 'highest degree' of something: 

 

Eh... La iglesia es superhermosa.

Um... The church is super beautiful.

Caption 14, Bogotá Una visita a la ciudad

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And finally, the prefix super can also indicate the 'excess' of something:

 

Ehm... Tenemos la... la... la... la... la superpoblación,

Um... We have (the... the... the... the... the) overpopulation,

Caption 50, Los médicos explican Entrevista con el Doctor Suarez

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The meaning of the word súper (with an accent)

 

Have you ever seen the word súper with an accent? If you think that súper is the same as super (with no accent), you are wrong. The word súper needs the accent only in the following situations:

 

1. When it is used as a noun for the short form of the word supermercado (supermarket) or the type of gasoline:

 

Roberto fue al súper a comprar naranjas.

Roberto went to the supermarket to buy oranges. 

 

2. When it works as an adjective or adverb to express that someone or something is/was great:

 

Súper, y ¿qué le dijeron de Gastón Almanza?

Super, and what did they tell you about Gaston Almanza?

Caption 20, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 1 - Part 8

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The simplest thing to remember here is that the prefix super doesn't have a graphic accent.

 

How to write words that use the prefix super in Spanish

 

Believe it or not, there are many native Spanish speakers who don't know how to properly write words that are formed with the prefix super. The main rule, however, is quite simple: When writing, the prefix super should be connected to the word that follows. With that simple rule, we can answer the question we posed at the beggining of this lesson:

 

Y tengo de superhéroe lo que Juanes de vallenato

And I've got from a superhero what Juanes [has] from vallenato

Caption 30, Juanes La Plata

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However, every rule has its exception and this rule has the following one:

 

Super followed by a hyphen

 

When the word that follows super starts with a capital letter or when this prefix is followed by a number, you need to add a hyphen:

 

super-Obama or super-10

 

Super separated by the word that follows it

 

You need to leave a space after super when it goes before a series of words that have their own meaning:

 

Yo siempre me he sentido super a gusto cantando al lado de ese grandísimo músico...

I have always felt pretty at home singing along this great musician...

Caption 50, David Bisbal Haciendo Premonición Live - Part 5

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That's it for today. We invite you to write 10 words with the prefix super. And don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.

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The 7 days of the week in Spanish

Do you know the days of the week in Spanish? Do words like lunes or domingo sound familiar to you? In this lesson, we will review the days of the week in Spanish in three different ways. First, you can listen to some random sentences containing the days of the week. Then, you will have the chance to listen to a short clip that shows you how to pronounce each day of the week. Finally, we will leave you with a list of the days of the week in Spanish and English. We hope this repetition helps you to memorize the names of the 7 days of the week in Spanish.

 

7 sentences with the days of the week in Spanish

 

We use the days of the week all the time! The following sentences will help us to get familiar with the sound of the days of the week.

 

El lunes, por ejemplo, fui a trabajar.

On Monday for example, I went to work.

Caption 6, El Aula Azul La Doctora Consejos: El pasado

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Los martes, además, tenemos las "Tardes de Intercambio".

On Tuesdays, additionally, we have the "Exchange Afternoons."

Caption 24, El Aula Azul Las actividades de la escuela - Part 2

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Todos los miércoles, voy con mi mejor amiga al cine.

Every Wednesday, I go with my best friend to the movies.

Caption 18, Ariana Mi Semana

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"Todos los jueves, aprendía nuevas canciones en mi clase de guitarra".

"Every Thursday, I used to learn new songs in my guitar class."

Caption 57, Carlos explica El pretérito Cap 4: Imperfecto I

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Pensaré cada día en Daniel cuando él vuele a Guatemala el próximo viernes.

I will think about Daniel every day when he flies to Guatemala next Friday.

Caption 36, Conjugación El verbo 'pensar'

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El día más fuerte, o sea, de mayor afluencia de personal sería el sábado.

The busiest day, I mean, the one with the largest influx of people would be Saturday.

Caption 25, Mercado de San Miguel Misael

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Estaba pensando, el domingo me gustaría invitar a los Mendoza a tomar onces para que se animen un poquito, ¿hmm?

I was thinking, on Sunday I would like to invite the Mendozas to have an afternoon snack so that they can cheer up a little but, hmm?

Captions 11-12, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 4 - Part 6

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Let's take these sentences to mention something important. The plural form of the days of the week that end in 's'  (lunes, martes, miércoles, jueves and viernes) is the same as their singular form. However, if you want to say the plural form of the days of the week that end in vowels (sábado and domingo), you need to add the letter 's' at the end. Here is a list of the singular and plural forms of the days of the week in Spanish:

 

el lunes - los lunes

el martes - los martes

el miércoles - los miércoles

el jueves - los jueves

el viernes - los viernes

el sábado - los sábados

el domingo - los domingos

 

How do you say the days of the week in Spanish?

 

Are you ready to practice the pronunciation of the 7 days of the week in Spanish? Let's take a look at the following clip from our friends Maru and Sol from GoSpanish.

 

Lunes, martes, miércoles, jueves. ¿Me ayudas, Sol? Sí. Viernes, sábado, y domingo.

Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday. Can you help me, Sol? Yes. Friday, Saturday, and Sunday.

Captions 24-32, Español para principiantes Los días de la semana

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Days of the week in Spanish and English

 

In order to help you remember the names of the week in Spanish, the following list contains the days of the week in Spanish and English:

 

Lunes - Monday

Martes - Tuesday

Miércoles - Wednesday

Jueves - Thursday

Viernes - Friday

Sábado - Saturday

Domingo - Sunday

 

There is something important to remember: Unlike English, the days of the week in Spanish are not capitalized. They are capitalized only if they appear at the beginning of a sentence.

 

That's it for today. Try to write a couple of sentences with the days of the week in Spanish and read them aloud so you can practice their pronunciation. And don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.

 

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The meaning of bravo in Spanish

Bravo/brava is an adjective with various meanings in Spanish. We use it when we want to say someone is brave or courageous. In some Spanish-speaking countries, however, bravo/brava is also used as a synonym for angry, mad or upset. This adjective can also help us describe the world around us by meaning rough or fierce. Finally, we also use bravo when we want to acknowledge someone's work in a positive way

 

Using bravo/brava to describe someone

 

As mentioned above, bravo is synonym for brave or courageous. Let's take a look at the following sentence:

 

Siendo el más bravo de todos, Miguel fue el primero que saltó del trampolín.

Being the bravest of all, Miguel was the first to jump off the diving board.

 

In some countries such as, for example, Colombia, bravo/brava is used when we want to say that someone is angry or upset:

 

Kevin, su novia está muy brava. Deb'... En este contexto, "brava" es sinónimo de enojada o enfadada.

Kevin, your girlfriend is very mad. You nee'... In this context, "brava," is a synonym of mad or angry.

Captions 17-18, Carlos comenta Los Años Maravillosos - Forma de hablar

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Bravo for describing the world around us

 

Bravo is also a very useful word for describing nature. For instance, bravo is a very common adjective when talking about a rough or choppy sea or river. Similarly, when talking about animals, bravo/brava can describe an animal that is fierce

 

El agua estaba muy brava, y soplaba un viento muy fuerte.

The water was very choppy, and a very strong wind was blowing.

Captions 30-31, Guillermina y Candelario Capitan Candelario

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¡Bravo! Well done!

 

Have you ever been in a theater where people shout "bravo" at the end of a play? Well, in Spanish we also use bravo the same way. However, we also say bravo/brava when we want to tell to someone they did something good, or did a good job. In other words, we use bravo/brava to say "well done" or "good for you."

 

Apart from that, we also use bravo/brava in various specific situations. For example, when you have to do something you don't want to do, you can say you did it "a la brava" (by force). We also use brava/bravo to express a very strong desire:

 

¡Oiga, que sed tan brava!

Hey, what a strong thirst!

Caption 52, Kikirikí Agua - Part 1

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Bravo/brava is also used in the context of sports:

- Barra brava or barrabrava (a group of hooligans in football/soccer)

- "Hacer barra" (to cheer up someone or a team)

 

 

That's all for today. We hope this lesson helped you to expand your vocabulary. And don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.

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6 rules for forming the plural of nouns in Spanish

Today, we will talk about the plural in Spanish. In particular, we will talk about the plural when referred to nouns. Let's start this lesson with a little quiz. Do you know what is the plural form of the following nouns?:

 

1. Casa (house)

2. Perro (dog)

3. Universidad (university)

4. Lápiz (pencil)

5. Jabalí (wild boar)

6. Análisis (analysis)

 

If you are not sure about how to make a singular noun plural in Spanish, we invite you to take a look at the following simple rules. While going through these rules, we will be unveiling the plural form of the 6 nouns we included in our quiz. Let's take a look.

 

Rule 1: Add an 'S' to form the plural of nouns ending in unstressed vowels

 

- Casa (house) - Casas (houses)

- Estudiante (student) - Estudiantes (students)

- Perro (perro) - Perros (dogs)

 

Se escucha un perro.

You can hear a dog.

Caption 43, Conversaciones en el parque Cap. 2: Cafe y bocadillos

 Play Caption

 

Tus perros también son muy bonitos.

Your dogs are very beautiful too.

Caption 58, Conversaciones en el parque Cap. 2: Cafe y bocadillos

 Play Caption

 

 

Rule 2: Add an 'S' to form the plural of nouns ending in stressed 'a,' 'e' and 'o'

 

- Papá (dad) - Papás (dads)

- Dominó (domino) - Dominós (dominoes)

- Café (coffee) - Cafés (coffees)

 

y les voy a mostrar el proceso de control de calidad de café de Colombia.

and I'm going to show you the quality-control process for coffee from Colombia.

Caption 5, Una Historia de Café La Bodega

 Play Caption

 

Cada uno de estos cafés tiene distintas cualidades tanto físicas como sensoriales

Each one of these coffees has different qualities both physically and sensorially.

Caption 14, Una Historia de Café La Bodega

 Play Caption

 

 

Rule 3: Add 'ES' or 'S' to form the plural of nouns ending in stressed 'i' and 'u'

 

- Bisturí (scalpel) - Bisturíes or bisturís (scalpels)

- Jabalí (wild boar) - Jabalíes or jabalís (wild boars)

- Tabú (taboo) - Tabúes or tabús (taboos)

 

Generally speaking, however, it is preferred to use the plural formed with 'ES'.

Also, this rule is very common when you are dealing with adjectives of nationality:

 

- Iraní (Iranian) - Iraníes or iranís (Iranians)

 

Rule 4: Add 'ES' to form the plural of nouns ending in consonant

 

- Árbol (tree) - Árboles (trees)

- Profesor (teacher) - Profesores (teachers)

- Universidad (university) - Universidades (universities)

- Rey (king) - Reyes (kings)

 

La rata esta es el rey de la estafa por allá en Europa.

This rat is the king con artist over there in Europe.

Caption 45, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 1 - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

Actualmente es la residencia oficial de los reyes de España,

Currently, it's the official residence of the King and Queen of Spain,

Caption 23, Madrid Un recorrido por la capital de España

 Play Caption

 

Notice that the singular noun árbol has a graphic accent in the second-to-last syllable (palabra grave). However, when you form the plural, the graphic accent moves to the third-to-last-syllable becoming a proparoxytone word (palabra esdrújula). Similarly, singular nouns like profesor and universidad that are stressed in the last syllable (palabras agudas) become paroxytone words (palabras graves) in the plural form. 

 

Rule 5: When a noun ends in 'Z,' the plural form switches the 'Z' for a 'C'

 

- Lápiz (pencil) - Lápices (pencils) 

- Raíz (root) - Raíces (roots)

- Voz (voice) - Voces (voices)

 

Tengo muy buena voz,

I have a very good voice,

Caption 91, Los casos de Yabla Problemas de convivencia - Part 2

 Play Caption

 

vuelven esas voces a mi cabeza.

those voices come back to my head.

Caption 37, El Aula Azul La Doctora Consejos - Subjuntivo y condicional

 Play Caption

 

Rule 6: Nouns ending in 'S' or 'X' that are the same in singular and plural in Spanish.

Paroxytone or proparoxytone nouns ending in 's' or 'x' keep the same form in plural. Let's see some examples:

 

- Cactus (cactus) - Cactus (cactuses/cacti)

- Tórax (thorax) - Tórax (thoraxes/thoraces)

Análisis (analysis) - Análisis (analyses/tests)

 

y en un análisis de nuestras debilidades, oportunidades, fortalezas y amenazas.

and an analysis of our weaknesses, opportunities, strengths and threats.

Caption 37, Raquel y Marisa Español Para Negocios - Crear una empresa

 Play Caption

 

para hacerle los análisis de sangre, de heces,

to do the blood tests, stool (tests),

Caption 54, Santuario para burros Santuario - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

 

That's it for now. We hope these rules help you to use the plural in Spanish. If you feel like practicing a little bit more, take 20 nouns and try to form their plural forms. And of course, don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The Spanish Alphabet: Letters and pronunciation

How well do you know the Spanish alphabet? Do you know how many letters are in the Spanish alphabet? What about the number of consonants and vowels that are part of it? This lesson answers these questions and provides a series of audio clips that will help you to learn the letters and improve the pronunciation of the Spanish alphabet. Let's take a look.

 

How to say alphabet in Spanish?

Believe it or not, there are actually two words in Spanish that we use to talk about the alphabet. While the most literal translation would be the word alfabeto, you can also use the word abecedario when referring to the Spanish alphabet. In fact, and according to the Real Academia Española (RAE), these two words are synonyms. 

 

How many letters are in the Spanish alphabet?

There are 27 letters in the Spanish alphabet. But do you know how many of those letters are consonants and how many vowels are in the Spanish alphabet? The answer is very simple. In the Spanish alphabet there are 22 consonants and 5 vowels (a, e, i, o, u). Let’s go over all the Spanish alphabet letters with the following 27 words:

 

A as in agua (water)

¿También tienes agua?

Do you have water too?

Caption 35, Conversaciones en el parque - Cap. 2: Cafe y bocadillos

 Play Caption

 

B as in burro (donkey)

El burro es un animal ideal para este tipo de actividades

The donkey is an ideal animal for this kind of activity

Caption 71, Rosa - Yoga con burros

 Play Caption

 

C as in coche (car)

Hoy, voy en coche porque hace mucho frío.

Today, I'm going by car because it's very cold.

Caption 16, Ariana - Cena especial

 Play Caption

 

D as in difícil (difficult)

Es muy difícil. -Muy complicado.

It's very difficult. -Very complicated.

Caption 31, Blanca y Mariona - Planificación de cena

 Play Caption

 

E as in ellos (they)

Ellos se llevan muy bien.

They get along very well.

Caption 41, El Aula Azul - Mis Primos

 Play Caption

 

F as in fácil (easy)

Basta, es muy fácil.

Enough, it's very easy.

Caption 72, Español para principiantes - Los números del 1 al 100

 Play Caption

 

G as in gente (people)

Barcelona se llena de gente,

Barcelona fills up with people,

Caption 17, Blanca - Sobre la ciudad de Barcelona

 Play Caption

 

H as in hotel (hotel)

El hotel también cuenta con un bar.

The hotel also has a bar.

Caption 73, Cleer y Lida - Recepción de hotel

 Play Caption

 

I as in iglesia (church)

Esta iglesia fue construida en mil seiscientos ochenta y uno.

This church was built in sixteen eighty one.

Caption 14, Viajando con Carlos - Popayán - Colombia - Part 2

 Play Caption

 

J as in jamón (ham)

Fíjate: jamón, Javier.

Check it out: ham, Javier.

Caption 27, Fundamentos del Español - 10 - La Pronunciación

 Play Caption

 

K as in kilo (kilo)

Reciclando un kilo de vidrio...

[By] recycling a kilo of glass...

Caption 70, 3R - Campaña de reciclaje - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

L as in lago (lake)

Hay un lago.

There is a lake.

Caption 11, Natalia de Ecuador - Los adverbios de orden

 Play Caption

 

M as in mercado (market)

y están presentes en el mercado internacional.

and are present in the international market.

Caption 73, Europa Abierta - Champagne en Andalucía

 Play Caption

 

N as in nunca (never)

Nadie, nada, nunca,

Nobody, nothing, never,

Caption 21, Fundamentos del Español - 5 - La Negación

 Play Caption

 

Ñ as in the middle of the word niño (boy)

La frase, el niño quiere el juguete,

The sentence, "the boy wants the toy,"

Caption 17, Raquel - Diminutivos y aumentativos

 Play Caption

 

O as in objeto (object)

Y "tendedero" es un objeto para la ropa

And "tendedero" is an object for clothes

Caption 27, Karla e Isabel - Palabras

 Play Caption

 

P as in parque (park)

aquí en Parque Fundidora.

here in Fundidora Park.

Caption 38, Paseando con Karen - Sitios Culturales en Parque Fundidora

 Play Caption

 

Q as in queso (cheese)

un vaso de leche y queso,

a glass of milk and cheese,

Caption 16, Recetas de Clara - Los aborrajados - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

R as in rápidamente (quickly)

Vamos a ver rápidamente una frase

We are going to look quickly at a phrase

Caption 2, Lecciones con Carolina - Esta noche vs anoche

 Play Caption

 

S as in sal (salt)

Muchos mercaderes venían a recoger la sal,

Many merchants came to get the salt,

Caption 14, Rosa - Fuente de Piedra

 Play Caption

 

T as in trabajo (job)

¿Qué trabajo es?

What job is it?

Caption 23, Sofy y Caro - Entrevistar para un trabajo

 Play Caption

 

U as in universidad (university)

¿La biblioteca de la universidad?

The university library?

Caption 21, Español para principiantes - Hablando de ubicaciones

 Play Caption

 

V as in viento (wind)

y un viento muy fuerte nos arrastró a mar abierto.

and a very strong wind dragged us out to the open sea.

Caption 21, Guillermina y Candelario - La Isla de las Serpientes - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

W as in wifi (wifi)

Tenemos también wifi y hay ordenadores disponibles.

We also have wifi and there are computers available.

Caption 20, El Aula Azul - Cursos y actividades de la escuela - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

X as in xilófono (xylophone)

Entonces, había una persona contando un cuento y él tocando un xilófono.

So, there was a person telling a story and he [was] playing a xylophone.

Caption 28, La Sub30 - Familias - Part 4

 Play Caption

 

Y as in yuca (yucca)

Aquí tenemos la yuca,

Here we have the yucca,

Caption 7, Recetas de cocina - Carimañolas

 Play Caption

 

Z as in zona (zone)

Es la primera vez que vengo a esta zona de la ciudad

It's the first time I've come to this area of the city

Caption 8, Karla e Isabel - Alquilar una habitación - Part 2

 Play Caption

 

Spanish alphabet pronunciation

If you want to improve your pronunciation of the Spanish alphabet, please take a look at the following audio clips where Marta, one of our Spanish teachers, will teach you how to properly pronounce the Spanis alphabet letters:

 

A, B, C, D, E

A, be, ce, de, e,

A, b, c, d, e,

Caption 19, Fundamentos del Español - 1 - El Alfabeto

 Play Caption

 

F, G, H, I, J

efe, ge, hache, i, jota,

f, g, h, i, j,

Caption 20, Fundamentos del Español - 1 - El Alfabeto

 Play Caption

 

K, L, M, N, Ñ

ka, ele, eme, ene, eñe,

k, l, m, n, ñ,

Caption 21, Fundamentos del Español - 1 - El Alfabeto

 Play Caption

 

O, P, Q, R, S

o, pe, cu, erre, ese,

o, p, q, r, s,

Caption 22, Fundamentos del Español - 1 - El Alfabeto

 Play Caption

 

T, U, V, W,

te, u, uve, uve doble,

t, u, v, w,

Caption 23, Fundamentos del Español - 1 - El Alfabeto

 Play Caption

 

X, Y

equis, i griega

x, y [literally: "Greek i"]

Caption 24, Fundamentos del Español - 1 - El Alfabeto

 Play Caption

 

Z

y zeta.

and z.

Caption 25, Fundamentos del Español - 1 - El Alfabeto

 Play Caption

 

Keep in mind that you can also refer to the letter W as doble ve (double v) or doble u (double u). Similarly, you can also call the letter Y ye instead of i griega (Greek i).

 

That's it for now. If you feel like practicing a little bit more, try to write one word with each one of the 27 Spanish alphabet letters. And of course, don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.

 
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Palabras esdrújulas: Accent on the third-to-last syllable

Let’s talk about accentuation and pronunciation. Today, we’ll discuss the so-called palabras esdrújulas (proparoxytone words). That’s a weird name, isn’t? Before we talk about palabras esdrújulas, we need to remember something important.

 

As we previously mentioned, all words in Spanish are stressed on one syllable. Depending on where that stress falls, words are divided into the following groups:

 

Palabras agudas (oxytone words) | accent on the last syllable

Palabras graves (paroxytone words) | accent on the second-to-last syllable

Palabras esdrújulas (proparoxytone words) | accent on the third-to-last syllable

Palabras sobresdrújulas (over-proparoxytone words) | accent on any syllable before the third-to-last syllable

 

Let’s get into palabras esdrújulas with the following example:

 

Palabras como micrófono, pirámide

Words like "micrófono," [microphone], "pirámide" [pyramid]

Caption 44, Carlos explica Acentuación Cap. 4: Clasificación de las palabras según el acento

 Play Caption

 

The word micrófono has four syllables (mi | cró | fo | no) and the stress goes on the third-to-last syllable “cró.” Similarly, the word pirámide has four syllables (pi | | mi |de) and the stress also goes on the third-to-last syllable “.”

 

If you noticed it, the two proparoxytone words that we just mentioned bear a graphic accent (tilde) on their stressed syllables. And that’s exactly the beauty of the palabras esdrújulas. Unlike palabras agudas and palabras graves, which follow complex rules regarding the use of the graphic accent, the esdrújulas ALWAYS need to have a graphic accent. Let’s see more examples:

 

También nos dedicamos a música clásica.

Also, we do classical music.

Caption 13, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Paty

 Play Caption

 

ya construimos la cámara para grabar la película.

we already built the camera to film the movie.

Caption 16, Guillermina y Candelario Una película de terror - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

Yo realmente prefiero no dar mi número de mi tarjeta de crédito por teléfono.

I really prefer not to give my credit card number on the phone.

Caption 50, Cleer y Lida Reservando una habitación

 Play Caption

 

As you can see from the examples above, there are lots of palabras esdrújulas in the Spanish language and some of them are quite common. Before we go, one last curious thing to remember: 

 

The word esdrújula is also a esdrújula word!

 

That's it for now. If you feel like practicing a little bit more, take one of our videos and try to find all the proparoxytone words in it. And of course, don’t forget to send your feedback and suggestions to newsletter@yabla.com.

 
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100 hard Spanish words to say correctly

Are you ready to learn some hard Spanish words? Don’t worry! We don’t want to scare you but rather we would like to highlight some of the issues that transform even simple words into difficult ones. Let’s review the following list featuring 100 of the most difficult Spanish words for English speakers

 

Hard Spanish words to pronounce

 

Pronunciation is definitely the issue to keep in mind when we talk about hard Spanish words. In fact, if you are a native English speaker, there are several sounds that are quite challenging. Let’s start with some of the most difficult words to pronounce in Spanish for English speakers. We have divided these words in groups according to the pronunciation challenge they represent.

 

That J sound

 

For many foreigners, words with the letter “j” are some of the most difficult Spanish words to say. If you are an English speaker, you can try to say the “j” in Spanish as a very strong “h” in English. Think of how you pronounce the letter “h” in the word ham. Let’s take a look: 

 

1. Ají (chili or bell pepper)

¿Ají?

"Ají" [chili pepper]?

Caption 37, Ricardo - La compañera de casa - Part 3

 Play Caption

 

2. Bajo (short)

Es bajo, es gordo,

He's short, he's fat,

Caption 33, El Aula Azul Mis Primos

 Play Caption

 

3. Caja (box)

y ellos también mandaron una caja grandísima

and they also sent a huge box

Caption 25, Diana Quintana - En Navidad regalemos una sonrisa

 Play Caption

 

4. Anaranjado (orange)

Adentro, son de color anaranjado.

Inside, they are orange-colored.

Caption 13, Otavalo, Ecuador - Conozcamos el Mundo de las Frutas con Julia

 Play Caption

 

5. Empujar (to push)

 

6. Equipaje (luggage)

¿Puedo dejar aquí mi equipaje?

Can I leave my luggage here?

Caption 59, Cleer y Lida - Recepción de hotel

 Play Caption

 

7. Espantapájaros (scarecrow)

8. Cojear (to limp)

9. Injusticia (injustice)

 

10. Jamón (ham)

Fíjate: jamón, Javier.

Check it out: ham, Javier.

Caption 27, Fundamentos del Español - 10 - La Pronunciación

 Play Caption

 

11. Jirafa (giraffe)

12. Jornada (day)

13. Jota (J - the sound of the letter J in Spanish)

 

14. Jugar (to play)

También podemos jugar a las cartas,

We can also play cards,

Caption 12, Clara y Cristina - Hablan de actividades

 Play Caption

 

15. Junio (June)

16. Lujoso (luxurious)

 

17. Lejano (far, far away)

Érase una vez en un lejano reino, ahí vivía una joven niña.

Once upon a time in a faraway kingdom, there lived a young girl.

Caption 2, Cuentos de hadas - La Cenicienta - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

18. Majo (nice)

19. Mojado (wet)

20. Pájaro (bird)

21. Sonrojar (to blush)

22. Tajada (slice)

 

That G sound

 

Just as it happens with the letter “j,”, there are several tricky words in Spanish with the letter “g”. What’s hard about this consonant is that there is a soft and a hard way to pronounce it. For example, you have a soft “g” in the word gato (cat). Think about the pronunciation of the syllable “ga” in the word gather. On the other hand, you have a hard “g” in the word gente (people), which is kind of similar to how you pronounce the “h” in the word helmet. Let’s see some tough Spanish words with the letter “g”:

 

23. Acogedor (cozy, welcoming)

Perfecto, porque es un barco muy marinero, muy acogedor para la gente,

Perfect, because it's a very seaworthy boat, very welcoming for the people,

Caption 16, La Gala - El bote de Dalí

 Play Caption

 

24. Agente (agent)

25. Agitar (shake)

26. Aguja (needle)

 

27. Agujero (hole)

Tiene un cuerpo con un agujero en el centro

It has a body with a hole in the center

Caption 45, Karla e Isabel - Instrumentos musicales

 Play Caption

 

28. Apagar (to turn off)

 

29. Coger (to take, to get)

El segundo paso es coger la cebolla,

The second step is to get the onion,

Caption 25, Clara cocina - Una tortilla española

 Play Caption

 

30. Garganta (throat)

Me duele la garganta,

My throat hurts,

Caption 11, Ariana - Cita médica

 Play Caption

 

31. General (general)

En general, los nombres acabados en "a" son femeninos

In general, nouns ending in "a" are feminine

Caption 10, Fundamentos del Español - 2 - Nombres y Género

 Play Caption

 

32. Geneaología (genealogy)

33. Geología (geology)

 

34. Gigante (giant, gigantic)

Una de las piezas más llamativas es este ajedrez gigante.

One of the most appealing pieces is this gigantic chess board.

Caption 35, Europa Abierta - Taller de escenografía en Olivares

 Play Caption

 

35. Ginecólogo (gynecologist)

36. Girasol (sunflower)

37. Guapo (handsome)

38. Juguetón (playful)

39. Tangible (tangible)

40. Tigre (tiger)

41. Zoológico (zoo)

 

That double RR sound

 

There are plenty of tricky words in Spanish with the strong sound of the double “rr”. The following are some of them: 

 

42. Aburrido (bored)

Ah, esto está muy aburrido, ni siquiera se entiende.

Oh, this is very boring, you can't even understand it.

Caption 24, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 2 - Part 4

 Play Caption

 

43. Carrera (career)

El presidente empezó su carrera política...

The president began his political career...

Caption 29, Lecciones con Carolina - El gerundio - Part 2

 Play Caption

 

44. Carretera (road)

 

45. Carro (car)

¿Ha venido en carro?

Have you come in a car?

Caption 64, Cleer y Lida - Recepción de hotel

 Play Caption

 

46. Correr (to run)

 

47. Desarrollar (Develop)

Pero el reto era desarrollar proyectos de biomedicina,

But the challenge was to develop biomedical projects,

Caption 10, Club de las ideas - Lego Fest en Sevilla

 Play Caption

 

48. Error (mistake)

Esto es un error

This is a mistake

Caption 21, Lecciones con Carolina - Errores comunes - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

49. Ferrocarril (railroad, train)

en un carrito tipo ferrocarril tirado por un caballo

in a little train-like car pulled by a horse

Caption 8, Mérida y sus alrededores - Haciendas de Cuzamá

 Play Caption

 

50. Garrote (club)

 

51. Guerra (war)

La palabra más fea es guerra.

The ugliest word is war.

Caption 61, Karla e Isabel - Palabras

 Play Caption

 

52. Guitarra (guitar)

53. Herradura (horseshoe)

54. Irresponsable (irresponsible)

55. Morral (backpack)

56. Ornitorrinco (platypus)

 

57. Perro (dog)

Se escucha un perro.

You can hear a dog.

Caption 43, Conversaciones en el parque - Cap. 2: Cafe y bocadillos

 Play Caption

 

58. Puertorriqueño (Puerto Rican)

 

That TR sound

 

Without any doubt, words that have a syllable where the consonant “t” is followed by the consonant “r,” are some of the most difficult words for English speakers to pronounce in Spanish. If you want to improve this sound, please listen carefully to some of the audio clips we have included for the next set of words.

 

59. Abstracto (abstract)

60. Astronomía (astronomy)

 

61. Astrología (astrology)

y voy a entender lo que es la astrología.

and I am going to understand what astrology is.

Caption 60, Conversaciones con Luis - Astrología

 Play Caption

 

62. Atracción (atraction)

Porque es en el centro... el sitio donde hay mayor atracción

Because it's at the center... the place where there are more attractions

Caption 21, Yabla en Lima - Miraflores

 Play Caption

 

63. Cuatro (four)

Número cuatro: microscopio.

Number four: microscope.

Caption 19, Aprendiendo con Karen - Útiles escolares - Part 1

 Play Caption

 

64. Entretener (to entertain)

65. Entretenido (entertaining)

66. Patrón (patron)

67. Patrulla (patrol)

68. Petróleo (oil)

69. Poltrona (easy chair)

70. Potro (colt)

 

71. Tradicion (tradition)

uno de los mitos más conocidos de la tradición indígena colombiana,

one of the best known myths of the indigenous Colombian tradition,

Caption 13, Aprendiendo con Carlos - América precolombina - Mitos y leyendas Muiscas

 Play Caption

 

72. Traicionar (to betray)

 

73. Trampa (trap)

No, no, me tendió una trampa y yo caí.

No, no, she set a trap for me and I fell into it.

Caption 29, Muñeca Brava - 44 El encuentro - Part 7

 Play Caption

 

74. Treinta y tres (thirty-three)

treinta y tres,

thirty-three,

Caption 49, Español para principiantes - Los números del 1 al 100

 Play Caption

 

75. Tres (three)

76. Trilogía (trilogy)

 

77. Triste

Estoy triste.

I am sad.

Caption 10, El Aula Azul - Estados de ánimo

 Play Caption

 

78. Tronco (trunk)

 

All those vowels

 

Unlike English, Spanish vowels are very clearly defined. Five vowels equals five sounds, period. While that may sound simple, the problem is that English speakers are used to pronouncing vowels in many more different ways. Here are some hard Spanish words that highlight this challenge.

 

79. Aguacate (avocado)

Este es guacamole hecho con aguacate...

This is guacamole made ​​with avocado...

Caption 33, Tacos Emmanuel - Cómo hacer tacos de pescado

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80. Estadounidense (American)

Paul es estadounidense, de los Estados Unidos.

Paul is American, from the United States.

Caption 16, Carlos explica - Geografía y gentilicios

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81. Eucalipto (eucalyptus)

82. Euforia (euphoria)

83. Idiosincrasia (idiosyncrasy)

84. Licuadora (blender)

 

85. Paraguas (umbrella)

Voy a coger un paraguas, por si acaso.

I am going to grab an umbrella, just in case.

Caption 42, Clara explica - El tiempo - Part 1

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86. Triángulo (triangle)

Después pones este triángulo con la base hacia abajo.

Afterwards you put this triangle with the base toward the bottom.

Caption 42, Manos a la obra - Separadores de libros: Charmander

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87. Vergüenza (shame)

 

Longest Spanish words

 

There is a ‘cute’ joke in Spanish that goes like this: 

 

- Do you know what the longest word in Spanish is?

- No. What is it?

- Arroz (rice)! 

- Arroz? That’s a very short word.

- No, arroz is the longest word in Spanish because it starts with ‘a’ and ends with ‘z’!

 

Of course, that’s only a joke! Arroz is one of the easiest words in Spanish. However, the following are some of the most challenging and longest Spanish words:

 

88. Electroencefalograma (electroencephalogram)

89. Esternocleidomastoideo (sternocleidomastoid)

90. Contrarrevolucionario (counter-revolutionary)

91. Constitucionalidad (constitutionality)

92. Internacionalización (internalization)

93. Otorrinolaringólogo (otolaryngologist)

 

Apart from these very complicated words, all those adverbs that end in -mente are also some of the longest Spanish words. Let’s look at a few:

 

94. Constitucionalmente (constitutionally)

 

95. Desafortunadamente (unfortunately)

Cuando tú creces, desafortunadamente te das cuenta que

When you grow up, unfortunately, you realize that

Caption 23, La Sub30 - Familias - Part 9

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96. Desconsoladamente (inconsolably)

97. Fuertemente (heavily)

 

 

98. Tradicionalmente (traditionally)

Y nos dedicamos al cultivo del champiñón tradicionalmente.

And we are dedicated to the cultivation of the mushroom traditionally.

Caption 4, La Champiñonera - El cultivo de champiñón - Part 1

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99. Tristemente (sadly)

 

And finally, can you think of any Spanish word that has all the vowels on it? We have a long word for you, which is actually quite short in English:

 

100. Murciélago (bat)

La palabra más larga es murciélago.

The longest word is bat.

Caption 43, Karla e Isabel - Palabras

 Play Caption

 

That's it for now. We know that there are many more hard Spanish words that we should include in this list. If you feel like it, please share some additional difficult Spanish words with us, and we’ll be happy to add them to this lesson. And don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions. ¡Hasta la próxima!

 

Continuar lendo

Football/Soccer Vocabulary Words in Spanish

These days, it feels like football or soccer (as it is known in the US) is everywhere! Are you enjoying the FIFA Women’s World Cup in France? What about the exciting Copa América? Are you following the Total Africa Cup of Nations? If you like the game and want to expand your Spanish vocabulary of football terms, this lesson introduces some of the most common football/soccer vocabulary words in Spanish.

 

First things first. The Spanish word for football or soccer is fútbol, a word whose stress goes on the second-to-last syllable:

 

Y este... y juego al fútbol también a veces.

And well... I also play soccer sometimes.

Caption 11, Bajofondo Tango Club - Mar Dulce - Part 1

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However, in Mexico and other places across Central America people usually say futbol, with the stress on the last syllable:

 

Antes también jugué al futbol.

Before, I also played football.

Caption 28, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Manuel Orozco Sánchez - Part 1

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By the way, if you are American and you are wondering how to say “football” in Spanish, the answer to that is fútbol americano.

 

Football positions in Spanish

 

From the word fútbol, we got the word futbolista (football player / soccer player). We can also use the term jugador as an alternative to futbolista. As a general rule, un equipo de fútbol (a soccer team) has eleven players (futbolistas / jugadores) on the field. Let’s see the names of the different kinds of players that you see in a typical partido de fútbol (soccer game / soccer match):

 

Portero, arquero, guardameta (goalkeeper)

Defensor (defender)

Mediocampista, centrocampista, volante (midfielder)

Delantero, atacante (forward)

 

You can also find various and more specific names for the different players in the field. For instance, in the defense you can hear names like the following:

 

Defensa central (central defender)

Lateral derecho (right back)

Lateral izquierdo (left back)

 

By the way, you can use the terms campo de juego, cancha de fútbol or terreno de juego to refer to the playing field.

 

Mirá a Carlitos. La ves en la cancha de fútbol y no te imaginás.

Look at Carlitos. You see her on the soccer field and you can't imagine.

Caption 27, Muñeca Brava - 8 Trampas - Part 10

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In terms of other people that are involved in the game, we also have the following:

 

Árbitro (referee)

Juez de línea (assistant referee)

Entrenador (coach)

Suplente (substitute player) 

El capitán del equipo (the captain of the team)

 

Keep in mind that substitute players sit on the banca or banquillo (bench). And let’s not forget about the fans who sit in the estadio (stadium). You can call them hinchas or aficionados or you can also use the corresponding collective nouns hinchada or afición (a group of fans).

 

How to say soccer ball in Spanish… and goal!

 

If you want to say soccer ball in Spanish, you can either use balón de fútbol or pelota de fútbol. Or simply, pelota or balón. Some people call the soccer ball esférico.

 

And what about that magical moment when the ball enters the goal (the netted structure behind the goalkeeper)? Of course, we are talking about the goal, which in Spanish is called gol… or as many Latin sportscasters would very loudly say: ¡GOOOOOOOOOOOOOL! Another option you may hear for the term goal is the word tanto.

 

By the way, there are many words you can use in Spanish to talk about the goal (the netted structure). You can refer to as la portería, el arco or la valla. Each one of the two vertical goal posts is called palo or poste while the horizontal crossbar is called travesaño or larguero. Also, the small area that the goalkeeper guards (the goal area) is known in Spanish as área chica or área de meta. The bigger area (the penalty area) is known as área de penal.

 

There are many more things that are connected to the game. Let’s learn some more words:

 

El pito (the whistle)

Las botas de fútbol, los guayos, los botines de fútbol (soccer shoes)

Los tacos (the studs)

Las canilleras or las espinilleras (shin guards)

La camiseta (the t-shirt)

La copa (the cup)

El Mundial (the World Cup)

 

Campeonato europeo de fútbol, Mundial en Sudáfrica

the European soccer championship, the World Cup in South Africa

Caption 26, Marta - Se presenta

 Play Caption

 

Tarjeta amarilla (yellow card)

Tarjeta roja (red card)

Bandera (flag)

El césped (the pitch / the grass)

Mediocampo or media cancha (midfield)

Los vestidores, los camerinos (locker rooms)

 

Playing the game

 

Now, when it comes to playing the game, there are many calls and moves that are part of a standard game. Let’s learn some of those football/soccer vocabulary words in Spanish:

 

Saque inicial (kickoff)

Saque lateral (throw-in)

Saque de meta (goal kick)

La asistencia (the assistance)

Un pase (a pass)

Un pase largo (a long pass)

Un cabezazo (a header)

Córner or tiro de esquina (corner)

Fuera de lugar or fuera de juego (offside)

Falta (foul)

Fútbol de toque (a passing game)

La jugada (the move)

La lesión (the injury)

El marcador (the score)

El medio tiempo or el descanso (halftime)

La ocasión (the chance)

Penalti (penalty)

La prórroga (the extra time)

Regate (dribble)

El tiro or el disparo (the shot)

Tiro libre (free throw)

Un error (a mistake)

Una remontada (a comeback)

Victoria (victory)

Empate (tie)

Derrota (defeat)

 

Soccer verbs in Spanish

Now, it is time to review some of those verbs you can easily hear if you watch a soccer/football game in Spanish.

 

Aprovechar (take advantage)

Arbitrar (to referee)

Atacar (to attack)

Buscar (to look for)

Caer (to fall)

Calentar (to warm up)

 

El entrenador nos ordena calentar antes de cada partido de fútbol.

The coach orders us to warm up before each soccer match.

Caption 44, Lecciones con Carolina - Pedir, preguntar, y ordenar

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Clasificar (to classify)

Correr (to run)

Defender (to defend)

Derrotar (to defeat)

Disputar (to play, to fight for)

Eliminar (to eliminate)

Empatar (to tie)

Ganar (to win)

Igualar (to even)

Imponerse (to prevail)

Intentar (to try)

Jugar (to play)

Marcar (to score or to defend)

Pelear (to fight)

Perder (to lose)

Recuperar (to recover)

Reponerse (to recover)

Romper (to break)

Seguir (to follow)

Sudar (to sweat)

 

En el campo de fútbol, empecé a sudar.

On the soccer field, I started to sweat.

Caption 11, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 2 - Part 7

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Toparse (to run/bump into)

Tirar, chutar (to shoot) 

 

That's it for this lesson. We hope you enjoy this brief guide to some of the most common football/soccer vocabulary words in Spanish. Are there any words/terms that we didn’t mention? Please, let us know and don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.

 

Continuar lendo

100 words that are identical in Spanish and English

Spanish may seem quite different from English and that could be very intimidating for people learning the language of Cervantes. However, if you are an English speaker, there are many words in Spanish that you already know! In this lesson, we will discover 100 words that are identical in Spanish and English.

 

Words ending in ‘or’

In English, many words ending in ‘or’ are exactly the same in Spanish. Let’s start with the first one:

 

con el actor Fred Savage.

with the actor Fred Savage.

Caption 8, Carlos comenta - Los Años Maravillosos - La década de los 80 y música

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In the example above, the spelling of the word “actor” is the same in English and Spanish. While the pronunciation is different, it is worth noting that the stress of the Spanish word goes on the last syllable while its English equivalent has the stress on the second-to-last syllable. Let’s see some words that follow the same pattern:

 

2. Color

3. Director

4. Editor

5. Error

6. Exterior

7. Favor

 

eh... para mí como un honor y también un... un reto poder hacer,

um... for me, like an honor and also a... a challenge to be able to make,

Caption 55, Leonardo Rodriguez Sirtori - Una vida como pintor - Part 2

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9. Horror

10. Humor

11. Inferior

12. Instructor

 

Y ¿prefieren habitación exterior o interior?

And do you prefer an interior room or an exterior room?

Caption 15, Raquel - Reservación de Hotel

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14. Motor

15. Rumor

16. Sector

17. Superior

18. Tenor

19. Tractor

20. Tumor

21. Tutor

 

We know that some words like color and favor are spelled differently in some English speaking countries (colour, favour) but if you remove the ‘u’ you will find the same words in Spanish.

 

Words ending in ‘al’

Now, let’s see some words that end in ‘al,’ which share the same spelling in both English and Spanish:

 

El estanque artificial es la primera imagen

The artificial pond is the first image

Caption 46, Marisa en Madrid - Parque de El Retiro

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23. Animal

24. Brutal

25. Capital

26. Central

27. Cereal

 

Esta ciudad se caracteriza por su arquitectura colonial.

This city is characterized by its colonial architecture.

Caption 7, Mérida y sus alrededores - Ciudad de Mérida

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29. Continental

30. Criminal

 

Luego tenemos proyectos de cooperación cultural,

Then we have cultural cooperation projects,

Caption 54, En el hub - Madrid

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32. Decimal

33. Dental

34. Editorial

35. Electoral

36. Elemental

37. Experimental

 

y una crema hidratante facial es netamente para tu rostro.

and a moisturizing facial lotion is purely for your face.

Caption 34, Los médicos explican - Consejos para la piel

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39. Fatal

40. Federal

41. Festival

42. Final

43. Formal

44. Fundamental

45. Funeral

46. General

47. Gradual

48. Horizontal

 

El hospital da hacia el mar.

The hospital faces the sea.

Caption 20, Lecciones con Carolina - Verbo - dar

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50. Ideal

51. Imperial

52. Industrial

53. Informal

54. Instrumental

55. Legal

56. Liberal

57. Literal

58. Local

59. Manual

 

Todo este material servirá para decorar los puestos y las calles de Olivares,

All this material will serve to decorate the stands and streets of Olivares

Caption 72, Europa Abierta - Taller de escenografía en Olivares

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61. Mental

62. Metal

63. Monumental

64. Moral

65. Mortal

66. Musical

67. Natural

68. Neutral

 

Yo tengo una familia que es una familia normal.

I have a family that is a normal family.

Caption 1, El Aula Azul - Mi familia

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70. Oral

71. Original

72. Personal

73. Plural

74. Radical

75. Regional

76. Rival

77. Rural

78. Social

79. Superficial

 

llegaréis a la terminal nueva.

you will arrive at the new terminal.

Caption 23, Blanca - Cómo moverse en Barcelona

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81. Total

82. Tropical

83. Universal

84. Vertical

85. Visual

86. Viral

87. Vital

 

Words ending in ‘ble’

Finally, there are many English words that end in ‘ble’ that are identical in Spanish. Let’s see some of them:

 

88. Adorable

89. Deplorable

90. Flexible

91. Honorable

92. Invisible

93. Irresistible

94. Miserable

 

porque él también es muy sociable, le encanta estar con la gente...

because he also is very sociable, he loves to be with people...

Caption 11, El Aula Azul - Mis Amigos

 Play Caption

 

96. Tangible

97. Terrible

98. Variable

99. Visible

100. Vulnerable

 

In English, most of these words are stressed on the third-to-last syllable. On the contrary, in Spanish these words are stressed on the second-to-last syllable.

 

That's it for this lesson. Isn’t it nice to see that you already know so many Spanish words without even trying? In fact, there are many more words ending in ‘or,’ ‘al’ and ‘ble’ that have the same meaning and spelling in English and Spanish. Can you find more words to add to these 100? Give it a try and don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.

 

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Entorno vs. en torno

As with any other language, Spanish can be tricky sometimes. Do you know how to use the word entorno? What about the expression en torno? Which one would you use in the following sentence:

 

Fuengirola es un importante punto turístico. Su economía gira ________ a este sector.

Fuengirola is an important touristic spot. Its economy revolves around this sector.

Captions 12-13, Fuengirola - Mercado

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What about this sentence:

 

encontró en su _________ un atractivo natural para los amantes del ecoturismo

found in its environment a natural beauty for the lovers of ecotourism

Caption 94, Tecnópolis - El Coronil

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Let’s find out what the answer is.

 

What is the English meaning of entorno?

To begin with, entorno is a noun and the meaning of this word is environment or surroundings. However, it is important to say that entorno encompasses the same broad meaning of the English word “environment,” meaning “the circumstances, objects, or conditions by which one is surrounded.” Let’s take a look at some examples:

 

... las calles, la gente... lo que es el entorno urbano.

... the streets, the people... what the urban environment is.

Captions 39-40, Leif - El Arquitecto Español y su Arte - Part 1

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para modificar el entorno, desarrolló herramientas, ¿no?

in order to modify the environment, he developed tools, right?

Caption 50, Lo que no sabías - Arte electrónico - Part 2

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Regarding the last example, the word entorno is very common in information and computer science, especially when talking about the features that define the execution and placement of a particular application.

 

The meaning of the expression en torno

As far as the expression en torno goes, we can use it to mean about, around or approximately. Let’s take a look:

 

que hay en torno a cincuenta millones, eh, hispanohablantes en Estados Unidos.

that there there are about fifty million, um, Spanish speakers in the United States.

Captions 42-43, El Instituto Cervantes - Director del Instituto

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Puede andar en torno a los dos mil seiscientos...

It could be around two thousand six hundred...

Caption 50, 75 minutos - Gangas para ricos - Part 13

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Finally, keep in mind that en torno is either followed by the preposition a or the preposition de:

 

  • Ella llegó en torno a la medianoche.
  • She arrived around midnight.

 

  • Las esculturas en torno de la iglesia.
  • The sculptures around the church.

 

That's it for this lesson. Now that you know the difference between entorno and en torno, you can answer the questions we posed at the beginning, right? And don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.

Continuar lendo

Palabras graves: Accent on the second-to-last syllable

In this lesson we’ll talk about Spanish words that have the accent on the second-to last syllable. We call these words palabras graves. In a previous lesson, we talked about palabras agudas, which are words with the accent on the last syllable. 

 

Before we talk about palabras graves, let’s briefly discuss the meaning of the word “accent” in Spanish.

 

When we pronounce words in Spanish, the accent is the emphasis we give to a particular syllable of a word. We create that emphasis by giving the syllable a greater intensity, a longer duration, or a higher pitch. With that in mind, let’s review the way we categorize words in Spanish, according to their accent:

 

  • Palabras agudas (oxytone words) | accent on the last syllable
  • Palabras graves (paroxytone words) | accent on the second-to-last syllable
  • Palabras esdrújulas (proparoxytone words) | accent on the third-to-last syllable
  • Palabras sobresdrújulas (over-proparoxytone words) | accent on any syllable before the third-to-last syllable

 

Now we can focus on palabras graves, which are also known as palabras llanas. Let’s look at a couple of words:

 

Palabras como "lápiz" o "cereza" son palabras graves.

Words like "lápiz" [pencil] or "cereza" [cherry] are paroxytone words.

Caption 33, Carlos explica - Acentuación Cap. 4: Clasificación de las palabras según el acento

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The word lápiz has two syllables (lá | piz) and the accent goes on the second-to-last syllable “.” Similarly, the word cereza has three syllables (ce | re | za) and the accent also goes on the second-to-last syllable “re.”

 

We note that the word lápiz has a graphic accent (tilde) on the “á,” while the “e” in the second-to-last syllable of cereza doesn’t have that accent.

Why not? It’s because paroxytone words need that graphic accent ONLY if they DO NOT end with “n,” “s,” or a vowel: Cereza ends in a vowel, so we don’t need the tilde.

 

y luego pasa en botella, donde se añade azúcar y eh... levadura.

and then goes into the bottle, where sugar is added and um... yeast.

Caption 26, Feria de Vinos Españoles en Londres - Bodegas Castell D'Age

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The word azúcar has three syllables (a | zú | car) and the accent goes on the second-to-last syllable “”. Since this word doesn’t end in “n,” “s” or a vowel, we need to put a tilde on the vowel of the second-to-last syllable.

 

La vida de músico es muy difícil, Kevin, es muy sacrificada.

The musician's life is very difficult, Kevin, it's very demanding.

Caption 16, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 3 - Part 8

 Play Caption

 

Likewise, the word difícil (di | fí | cil) has the accent on the second-to-last syllable “” and we need to put the graphic accent on the “í” since this word ends in a consonant (“l”), which is neither an “n,” an “s” nor a vowel.

 

There are, however, many palabras graves in Spanish that don’t need a graphic accent. Let’s take a look:

 

El lunes, por ejemplo, fui a trabajar.

On Monday for example, I went to work.

Caption 6, El Aula Azul La Doctora Consejos - El pasado

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Both lunes ( lu | nes) and ejemplo (e | jem | plo) have the accent on the second-to-last syllable. However, since lunes ends in “s” and ejemplo ends in a vowel, neither word needs the tilde.

 

One last thing: There are many words that are agudas in the singular and graves in the plural. Take a look at the following list (stressed syllable are in boldface):

 

  • Organización [organization] | organizaciones [organizations]
  • Nación [nation] | naciones [nations]
  • Doctor [doctor] | doctores [doctors]
  • Pared [wall] | paredes [walls]


That's it for now. If you feel like practicing a little bit more, take one of our videos and try to find all the paroxytone words with and without a tilde. And of course, don’t forget to send your feedback and suggestions.

 

Explore more lessons:

Palabras agudas: Stress at the end

Some Unique Words and Expressions

Too Fast? Blame the Sinalefas - Part 1

 

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Learning Idiomatic Expressions

We use idiomatic expressions all the time in our conversations. However, learning to use idiomatic expressions in a foreign language is something that most students find particularly challenging. Let’s find out how to say “a piece of cake,” “raining buckets,” “get away with it,” and “feel like” in Spanish.
 
In English, when something is extremely easy to do we say that it"s “a piece of cake.” In Spanish, the equivalent expression is pan comido (eaten bread):
 

porque componer para mí es pan comido.

because for me composing is a piece of cake.

Caption 80, NPS No puede ser - 1 - El concurso - Part 9

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In English, there’re several expressions that can be used to express that it’s raining heavily, for example “to rain buckets” or “to rain cats and dogs.” If we want to express the same idea in Spanish we must use the expression llover a cántaros [literally "to rain jugs"]:
 

Sí, llueve a cántaros.

Yes, it's raining buckets.

Caption 45, Español para principiantes - Saludos y encuentros

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In English, when someone manages to do something bad without being punished or criticized for it, we say that he/she “gets away with it.” In Spanish, the phrase used to express the same idea is salirse con la suya:
 

Yo no pienso dejar que esa sifrina se salga con la suya.

I don't plan to let that snob get away with it.

Caption 79, NPS No puede ser - 1 - El concurso - Part 10

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Finally, when we want to say that someone has the desire to do something, we use the expression “to feel like.” In Spanish people use the phrase tener ganas de:
 

Si tienes ganas de más aventuras,

If you feel like more adventures,

Caption 20, Marta - Los Modos de Transporte

 Play Caption


¿Tienes ganas de practicar más? [Do you feel like practicing more?]. Try finding more idiomatic expressions in our catalog of videos! And don’t forget to send your feedback and suggestions to newsletter@yabla.com.

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Palabras agudas: Stress at the end

Let's talk about stress. In Spanish, all words are stressed on one syllable. Depending on the syllable where that stress falls, words in Spanish are divided into the following four groups:
 
Palabras agudas (Oxytone words) | Last syllable
Palabras graves (Paroxytone words) | Second-to-last syllable
Palabras esdrújulas (Proparoxytone words) | Third-to-last syllable
Palabras sobresdrújulas (Over-proparoxytone words) | Any syllable before the third-to-last syllable
 
Today, we will talk about palabras agudas. Let’s look at a couple of words:
 

Palabras como "corazón" o "tambor" son palabras agudas.

Words like "corazón" [heart] or "tambor" [drum] are oxytone words.

Caption 22, Carlos explica - Acentuación Cap. 4: Clasificación de las palabras según el acento

 Play Caption

 

The word corazón has three syllables (co | ra | zón) and the stress falls on the last syllable “zón.” Similarly, the word tambor has two syllables (tam | bor) and the stress falls on the last syllable “bor.”
 
However, the word corazón has an accent mark (tilde) on top of the “ó,” while the “o” in the last syllable of tambor doesn’t have that accent. Why? Because oxytone words need that accent ONLY when they end in “n”, in “s” or in a vowel:
 

La manera más simple de llegar a Barcelona es con el autobús

The simplest way to get to Barcelona is by bus

Caption 27, Blanca - Cómo moverse en Barcelona

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El coquí es un sapito que tenemos aquí en Puerto Rico.

The coquí is a little frog that we have here in Puerto Rico.

Caption 31, Carli Muñoz - Niñez - Part 1

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The word autobús has three syllables (au | to | bús) and the stress falls on the last syllable. Since this word ends in “s,” we need to put a tilde on the vowel of the last syllable. Likewise, the word coquí (co | quí) is stressed on the last syllable and we need to put the tilde on the “í” since this word ends in a vowel.
 
Important! In Spanish the accent mark ( ´ ) can only be placed on top of a vowel.
 
There are many oxytone words in Spanish. In fact, all verbs in the infinitive are palabras agudas:
 

¿Quieres tomar algo de beber, Raquel?

Do you want to have something to drink, Raquel?

Caption 22, Raquel - Presentaciones

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Both tomar ( to | mar) and beber (be | ber) have two syllables and the stress falls on the last one. However, since they both end in “r,” the accent mark is not needed.

That's it for now. If you feel like practicing a little bit more, take one of our videos and try to find all the oxytone words without a tilde. And of course, don’t forget to send your feedback and suggestions to newsletter@yabla.com.

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First, Second and Third: The Ordinal Numbers

Let’s talk about numbers today. The ordinal numbers express position, order or succession in a series, such as first, second and third. Let's take a look at some of the rules that you need to keep in mind when using ordinal numbers.
 
The first ten ordinals are very often used in spoken Spanish so let’s take a moment to review them: Primero (first), segundo (second), tercero (third), cuarto (fourth), quinto(fifth), sexto (sixth),

séptimo (seventh), octavo (eighth), noveno (ninth) and décimo (tenth).
 
Generally speaking, the ordinal numbers in Spanish go before the noun and agree in gender and number with the noun they are describing:
 

Las primeras imágenes que veo son impactantes, la verdad,

The first images that I see are shocking, truthfully,

Caption 34, Iker Casillas - apoya el trabajo de Plan

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A very important rule regarding the ordinals primero (first) and tercero (third) is that they drop the final ‘o’ before a masculine noun:

 

Y por ejemplo este nuevo disco es vuestro tercer disco creo... tercero o cuarto.

And for example this new record is your third record I believe... Third or fourth.

Caption 65, Bajofondo Tango Club - Mar Dulce - Part 1

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Ordinal numbers can be simple or compound. Simple ordinals have their own form while compound ordinals are made by joining simple numbers. The ordinal numbers “eleventh” and “twelfth” are unique in Spanish because they can have both simple and compound forms. For example, we could write the ordinal “twelfth” as a simple number (duodécimo) or as a compound one (décimo segundo):
 

En el dos mil diecisiete, El Real Madrid ganó su décima segunda '"Champions".

In two thousand seventeen, Real Madrid won its twelfth championship.

Caption 39, Carlos explica - Los Números: Números Ordinales

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Also, let’s remember that we use ordinal numbers for sovereign figures like kings, queens and popes. In this case, the ordinals are placed after the noun they describe:
 

Fuimos a la beatificación del Papa Juan Pablo Segundo.

We went to the beatification of Pope John Paul the Second.

Caption 9, Latinos por el mundo - Chilenas en Venecia

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That's it for now. Remember to memorize and practice the first 10 ordinals as they are commonly used in everyday language! And don’t forget to send your feedback and suggestions to newsletter@yabla.com.

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Gentilicios: Adjectives of Nationality in Spanish

Let's talk about gentilicios (demonyms)! Gentilicios are words that we use as adjectives when we want to say the place where someone or something comes from. In other words, they are adjectives of nationality in Spanish! Some examples of demonyms are words like “Brazilian,” “African” or “Chinese.”
 
Unlike English, we don’t capitalize demonyms in Spanish:

 

Mejor dicho, esas que son una mezcla entre peruana y colombiano.

In other words, those that are a mix between a Peruvian girl and a Colombian guy.

Caption 35, La Sub30 - Familias - Part 1

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We form demonyms using suffixes, which most of the time need to be consistent with the gender and the number of the noun they are describing. Let’s take the suffix ano:
 

Roberto es mexicano | Roberto is Mexican (singular masculine)
Claudia es mexicana | Claudia is Mexican (singular feminine)
Roberto y Claudia son mexicanos | Roberto and Claudia are Mexicans (plural masculine)
Claudia y Daniela son mexicanas | Claudia and Daniela are Mexicans (plural feminine)

 

cuando realmente veo otros mexicanos, otros latinos,

when I see other Mexicans, other Latin people,

Caption 13, Arturo Vega - Entrevista - Part 5

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Other suffixes that are very often used to form gentilicios are és (singular masculine) and esa(singular feminine) as well as co (singular masculine) and ca (singular feminine):
 

De padre austriaco y madre francesa, es casi políglota de nacimiento.

From an Austrian father and French mother, he's pretty much multilingual from birth.

Caption 12, Europa Abierta - Alejandro Hermann - El arte de pintar

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We also have the suffix eño (singular masculine) as in limeño (from Lima, the capital of Peru), and the suffix í as in the demonym iraní (from Iran). The latter is used for both masculine and feminine and only changes in its plural form (iraní becomes either iranís or iraníes, both forms are correct):

 

madrileñomadrileña, de Madrid, la capital de España.

or "madrileño," "madrileña," [from Madrid], from Madrid, the capital of Spain.

Caption 34, Carlos explica - Geografía y gentilicios

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Just like iraní, the demonym estadounidense (from the United States) is the same for the masculine and feminine forms. Some people use americano or americana when referring to someone from the US. However, if you are travelling across Latin America try to use estadounidense instead. Most people in Latin America treat the word América as a continent and not a country so using that demonym when referring to the US will certainly leave a nice impression across the Americas.
 
That's all for now. We would like to leave you with the following exercise: Choose 20 countries from the world and try to write the gentilicios for each one. And don’t forget to send your feedback and suggestions to newsletter@yabla.com.

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