Let's talk about adverbs! Today, we have a big match: afuera vs. fuera. Do you know the meaning of these two words? Let's explore how to use and pronounce these very often used Spanish adverbs.
As an adverb, afuera refers to a place that is outside of where you are:
Todo lo malo me pasa dentro de esta casa, no afuera.
All the bad things happen to me inside this house, not outside.
Caption 20, Muñeca Brava 18 - La Apuesta - Part 4Play Caption
Similarly, the adverb fuera is used to talk about the exterior part of something:
puedes ir a tomar café a una cafetería fuera de la escuela,
you can go to drink coffee at a cafe outside of the school,Play Caption
If you want to indicate that someone is going outside, toward the exterior, or even abroad (with verbs of movement), you can use either afuera or fuera. Both forms are correct and are used indistinctly in both Spain and Latin America. Let's see some sentences:
Vení, vamos afuera.
Come, let's go outside.
Caption 28, Yago 9 Recuperación - Part 2Play Caption
Cuando los cuatro compañeros nos fuimos a estudiar fuera,
When we four friends went to study abroad,Play Caption
When you want to indicate that someone or something is outside, or when you want to make a reference to the outside world, you use fuera in both Spain and Latin America. However, it is also very common to use afuera throughout the Americas. Let's hear the pronunciation of these two words one more time:
¡Qué lindo que está afuera! ¿No? El clima está divino.
How nice it is outside! No? The weather is divine.
Caption 15, Muñeca Brava 1 Piloto - Part 4Play Caption
me doy una buena ducha aquí fuera,
I take a good shower here outside,
Caption 31, Amaya "Mi camper van"Play Caption
Both afuera and fuera can be used as interjections. Generally speaking, you use these interjections when you ask someone to leave a place.
¡Suficiente, fuera de mi casa!
Enough, out of my house!
Caption 61, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 4 - Part 6Play Caption
There are several useful idiomatic expressions with the word fuera. Let's see some of them:
Este hombre vive fuera de la realidad, Señoría.
This man lives outside of reality, Your Honor.Play Caption
Su ropa está fuera de moda.
His clothes are out of fashion.Play Caption
No hay nada fuera de lo normal,
There isn't anything out of the ordinary,
Caption 38, Negocios Empezar en un nuevo trabajo - Part 1Play Caption
That's it for today. We hope this review helps you to use correctly the adverbs fuera and afuera. As you could see throughout this lesson, more than talking about afuera vs fuera, we should really treat this subject as afuera = fuera! Keep that in mind and don't forget to send us your comments and suggestions.
Let's talk about family! Do you know how to say words like "father" or "cousin" in Spanish? Today, we will learn how to say the names of the most important family members in Spanish. In particular, we will see how to write and pronounce those names. Let's take a look.
Familia is the Spanish word for family. It is important to say that this is a feminine collective noun. Collective nouns are words that we use for particular groups. However, these nouns are treated as singular words. Let's see how this works:
Mi familia es pequeña y cálida. Considerando que "familia" es un sustantivo colectivo femenino, conjugamos el verbo en tercera persona del singular y utilizamos adjetivos femeninos, "pequeña" y "cálida", para elaborar la concordancia de manera correcta.
My family is small and warm. Considering that "familia" is a feminine collective noun, we conjugate the verb in third person singular and use feminine adjectives, "pequeña" [small] and "cálida" [warm], to create agreement in the correct way.
Captions 16-20, Carlos explica Sustantivos colectivosPlay Caption
The following are the names of the most important family member in Spanish.
Comes bastante verdura, tu madre que te quiere.
Eat enough vegetables, your mother who loves you.Play Caption
Very often, however, people refer to their mothers using the following terms:
Mamá, quería preguntarte algo.
Mom, I wanted to ask you something.
Caption 2, Yago 10 Enfrentamientos - Part 7Play Caption
¿Haciendo la tarea con mami? -Sí.
Doing your homework with Mommy? -Yes.
Caption 24, Yago 11 Prisión - Part 5Play Caption
"A mi padre siempre le toca trabajar mucho todos los viernes".
"My father always has to work a lot every Friday."
Caption 53, Carlos explica Vocabulario: El verbo “tocar”Play Caption
However, just like for the word "mother", there are some other terms people use when talking with or about their fathers:
Fue cuando me di cuenta no tenía ni idea de lo que hacía mi papá.
It was then that I realized I had no idea what my dad did.
Caption 30, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 3 - Part 3Play Caption
Papi, cualquier hora es buena.
Daddy, any hour is good.
Caption 5, X6 1 - La banda - Part 3Play Caption
Quiero presentarles a mi hijo; Kevin, él es Felipe,
I want to introduce you to my son; Kevin, this is Felipe,
Caption 16, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 3 - Part 6Play Caption
Y muy feliz de tener a mi lado a mi hija,
And very happy to have my daughter by my side,
Caption 38, Yolimar Gimón sobre el concurso Mrs. VenezuelaPlay Caption
Después aquí tengo a mi hermano, José.
Then here I have my brother, Jose.
Caption 11, Curso de español Vamos a hablar de la familiaPlay Caption
pero que estaba alejando a mi hermana de nosotros.
but which was taking my sister away from us.
Caption 21, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 4 - Part 2Play Caption
Grandpa, Grandpa!Play Caption
Abuela, podemos hablar dos minutos por favor.
Grandmother, can we talk for two minutes, please.
Caption 4, Muñeca Brava 18 - La Apuesta - Part 6Play Caption
Mi nieto no existe.
My grandson does not exist.
Caption 53, Muñeca Brava 33 El partido - Part 7Play Caption
La nieta de María.
Caption 30, Zoraida en Coro El pintor YepezPlay Caption
Y su tío Aldo cree que está muerto, su tío Lucio confía en que esté vivo.
And his Uncle Aldo believes that he's dead, his Uncle Lucio has faith that he's alive.
Caption 22, Yago 8 Descubrimiento - Part 3Play Caption
Esa es mi tía Silvia.
That is my Aunt Silvia.
Caption 24, Español para principiantes DemostrativosPlay Caption
¿Hace cuánto tiempo que dejó de ver a su sobrino?
How long ago did you stop seeing your nephew?
Caption 69, Yago 8 Descubrimiento - Part 1Play Caption
Sobrina. Muy bien.
Niece. Very good.
Caption 43, Curso de español Vamos a hablar de la familiaPlay Caption
Sí, me gusta mucho mi primo Pedro.
Yes, I like my cousin Pedro very much.
Caption 40, El Aula Azul Mis PrimosPlay Caption
Esta mañana mi prima se ha roto la pierna jugando al fútbol.
This morning my cousin has broken her leg playing soccer.Play Caption
Finally, keep in mind that when using the plural forms of these nouns, you should use the male form when the group is made of both male and female members:
Two cousins (both male): Dos primos
Two cousins (both female): Dos primas
Two cousing (one male and one female): Dos primos
That's it for today. We invite you to take a piece of paper and design your family tree with the names of the family members in Spanish. And don't forget to send us your comments and suggestions.
Generally speaking, one-syllable words in Spanish don't need a graphic accent (tilde) even if they are tonic (words that are stressed when pronounced). Some examples of tonic one-syllable words include the following nouns:
Besides nouns, there are several one-syllable words that come from the conjugations of some verbs. Just as the nouns we mentioned before, these words don't need a graphic accent either. Let's see some examples:
Él los vio a los ladrones. ¿Usted vio a los ladrones?
He saw the thieves. Did you see the thieves?
Captions 16-17, Yago 6 Mentiras - Part 7Play Caption
No sabemos si fue el lunes o si fue el martes.
We don't know if it was on Monday or it was on Tuesday.
Caption 5, El Aula Azul Dos historiasPlay Caption
With that being said, there are some important exceptions of one-syllable words in Spanish that do need a graphic accent. This kind of accent is called in Spanish tilde diacrítica and we use it to avoid confusion between one-syllable words that have the same spelling but different meanings. Let's take a look.
Los niños y los adultos se ríen mucho con él.
Kids and adults laugh a lot with him.
Caption 54, El Aula Azul Las Profesiones - Part 2Play Caption
tenemos el brazo.
we have the arm.
Caption 9, Marta de Madrid El cuerpo - El troncoPlay Caption
Except when it acts as a conjunction of contrast (just like the word pero (but)), the one-syllable word más always has a graphic accent.
empecé más o menos a los diecisiete años a tocar instrumentos y a cantar a un nivel más avanzado.
I started to play instruments at about seventeen years old and to sing at a more advanced level.
Captions 18-19, Cleer Entrevista con JackyPlay Caption
When it works as a personal pronoun, you need to put the graphic accent.
Pueden confiar en mí.
You can trust me.
Caption 11, Guillermina y Candelario Mi Primer TesoroPlay Caption
However, when it works as a possessive adjective, it doesn't need a graphic accent.
En mi barrio hay una farmacia.
In my neighborhood there is a pharmacy.
Caption 4, El Aula Azul Mi BarrioPlay Caption
Form of the verbs ser (to be) and saber (to know)
Que sí, mamá, que ya sé que siempre se olvida de mi cumpleaños,
Yes, Mom, I know that he always forgets my birthday,
Caption 1, Cortometraje Beta - Part 1Play Caption
Personal pronoun and reflexive
El martes se me perdieron las llaves de casa,
On Tuesday, my house keys got lost,Play Caption
Ella no quería acostarse con Ivo Di Carlo,
She didn't want to sleep with Ivo Di Carlo,
Caption 61, Muñeca Brava 48 - Soluciones - Part 1Play Caption
Reflexive pronoun and adverb of affirmation
Sí, vine porque Aldo me había hecho una propuesta
Yes, I came because Aldo had made a suggestion
Caption 3, Yago 14 La peruana - Part 9Play Caption
Si me dejan en la calle me arreglo
If they leave me on the street I manage
Caption 2, Jorge Celedón, Vicentico Si Me DejanPlay Caption
¿Quién no se despierta con una taza de café o de un buen té?
Who doesn't wake up with a cup of coffee or good tea?
Caption 39, Aprendiendo con Karen Utensilios de cocinaPlay Caption
Personal pronoun and reflexive
La que yo guardo donde te escribí, que te sueño y que te quiero tanto
The one I keep where I wrote to you, that I dream of you and that I love you so much
Caption 9, Carlos Vives, Shakira La BicicletaPlay Caption
Rachel, ¿qué quieres tú?
Rachel, what do you want?
Caption 2, Clase Aula Azul Pedir deseos - Part 3Play Caption
para tu salud, tan importante para tu estilo de vida
for your health, as important for your lifestyle
Caption 52, Natalia de Ecuador Alimentos para el desayunoPlay Caption
That's it for today. We encourage you to learn all these one-syllable words as they are used quite often in Spanish. If you master them, you will be able to avoid common writing mistakes. If you have any comments or questions, please don't hesitate to contact us.
Let's talk about gender. If you have been studying Spanish, you probably know that nouns in Spanish have gender. For example, the word libro (book) is a masculine noun. On the contrary, the noun pelota (ball) is feminine. If you want to use those nouns with their corresponding definite articles, you will say el libro (the book) and la pelota (the ball). Now, what about the noun agua (water)? Is agua masculine or feminine? Do you say el agua or la agua?
Let's take a look at some clips:
Cuando uno tiene sed Pero el agua no está cerca
When one is thirsty But the water's not close by
Captions 17-18, Jarabe de Palo AguaPlay Caption
Y como para completar la historia, desperdiciaban el agua todo el tiempo.
And, as if to make matters worse, they wasted water all the time.
Caption 15, Salvando el planeta Palabra Llegada - Part 7Play Caption
y apenas sus pies tocaron el agua, se convirtieron en dos grandes serpientes
and as soon as their feet touched the water, they turned into two big snakesPlay Caption
Can you answer now our question? According to the above clips, is agua masculine or feminine? In all the previous clips, the word agua is placed right after the masculine definite article "el" so the noun agua must be masculine, right? Not too fast! Let's take a look at the following clips:
limonadas, refrescos o simplemente agua fresca.
lemonades, sodas or just cold water.
Caption 42, Aprendiendo con Karen Utensilios de cocinaPlay Caption
Las formas de presentación incluyen el agua ozonizada y el aceite ozonizado,
The formulations include ozonized water and ozonized oil,
Caption 35, Los médicos explican Beneficios del ozonoPlay Caption
Un día, los vientos del páramo agitaron las aguas de la laguna
One day, the winds from the tundra shook up the waters of the lakePlay Caption
Did you see that? If you look at the first two clips, you can see that the adjectives that go after the noun agua are feminine adjectives that end with the vowel "a" (fresca and ionizada). Also, in the third clip, you can see that the term aguas (plural form of agua) is preceded by the feminine definite article "las". So, is agua masculine or feminine?
The answer is very simple: the noun agua is always feminine. However, if you are wondering why we say "el agua" and not "la agua" there is a simple rule you need to keep in mind: If a feminine noun starts with a stressed "a", you need to use the masculine definite article "el". Let's see more feminine nouns that start with a stressed "a":
el águila (the eagle)
el alma (the soul)
Nevertheless, it is important to say that for plural feminine nouns, you need to use the plural feminine definitive article "las":
las aguas (the waters)
las águilas (the eagles)
las almas (the souls)
Finally, keep in mind that if the noun is feminine the adjective needs to be feminine too. For example, let's say that we want to say "the water is dirty." Since water is feminine in Spanish, you need to use the feminine version of the adjective (sucia):
RIGHT - El agua está sucia
WRONG - El agua está sucio
So, there you have it. We hope you learned something useful today and don't forget to send us your comments and suggestions.
¡Hasta la próxima!
There are many words that have defined the year that just ended. However, we believe there is a word that was crucial in 2019, not only in Spanish but in all languages! With that being said, the Spanish word of the year 2019 was... "protesta" (protest)! Let's dive into the meaning and use of this word.
If you followed the news in 2019, you probably won't need an explanation. From the ongoing protests in Hong Kong to the more recent protests throughout South America, it looks like the whole world was protesting in 2019. The following are some of the headlines that dominated the news in 2019:
Continúa represión en Chile tras nueve semanas de protestas
Repression continues in Chile after nine weeks of protests
5 rostros que simbolizan las protestas en Chile, Colombia, Hong Kong, Irak y Líbano
5 faces that symbolize the protests in Chile, Colombia, Hong Kong, Iraq and Lebanon
De Chile a Hong Kong: el virus de la protesta se extiende por el mundo
From Chile to Hong Kong: the protest virus spreads throughout the world
Protesta has the same meaning that the English word "protest." However, this word doesn't only refer to "a usually organized public demonstration of disapproval" (Merriam-Webster). For instance, the word protesta in Spanish also refers to the oath taken by a President during his/her inaugural ceremony. Also, generally speaking, protesta can be simply understood as a complaint or objection:
Ahí se oye un poco el... la protesta del leopardo.
There you can hear a bit the... the leopard's protest.Play Caption
Check out the following video clips so you can practice the pronunciation of the word protesta and its plural protestas (protests).
Y es un lugar donde normalmente mucha gente que quiere venir a expresar sus ideas o protestas
And it's a place where usually many people who want to come and express their ideas, their protests,
Captions 4-5, Yabla en Buenos Aires Plaza Mayo - Part 2Play Caption
Tú hazme el favor, dámele una pequeña razón a ese señor. Mamá, ninguna razón, reclamo, ni protesta.
Do me a favor, deliver a little message to that man. Mom, no message, complaint or protest.
Captions 77-78, X6 1 - La banda - Part 8Play Caption
Also, check out the following clips where you can hear the pronunciation of the verb protestar (to protest).
porque el veintiocho de diciembre lo que hacemos nosotros aquí es protestar...
because on December twenty eighth what we do here is to protest...
Caption 30, Estado Falcón Locos de la Vela - Part 1Play Caption
Esa no es la forma de protestar.
That is not the way to protest.
Caption 27, Kikirikí Agua - Part 3Play Caption
So, there you have it. What do you think of protesta as the word of the year 2019? Can you think of any other word worth this title? What do you think of all these protests around the world, anyway? Please, send us your feedback, comments and questions. We will be happy to hear from you!
Do you know how to use a punto as opposed to apunto? Do you know the meaning of the expression "estar a punto de"? Let's start this lesson with a little quiz. Which term would you use in the following sentences, a punto or apunto?:
Te ______ en la lista de pacientes.
I'll write you down on the patient list.
What about this one?:
En 1985, Colombia estuvo ______ de conseguir la paz.
In 1985, Colombia was about to achieve peace.
Let's review the meaning of a punto and apunto.
A punto is an adverbial phrase that can be used in the following two ways:
1. To indicate that something is ready for the end it has been prepared for.
2. As a synonym of "timely" or "on time".
Here's one example:
¿Esto lo hago hasta que quede a punto de nieve? -Has'... Ah, no, eh... -Claro.
Shall I do this until it forms peaks [literally "until it looks like snow"]? -Unt'... Oh, no, um... -Of course.
Caption 9, Ricardo La compañera de casa - Part 3Play Caption
While the adverbial phrase a punto is used fairly often, the most common use of a punto is when it's part of the prepositional phrase a punto de + infinitive verb. In terms of its meaning, we use a punto de + infinitive verb when we want to say that something is or was about to happen. In fact, you can think of a punto de as the English equivalent "about to". Let's look at a couple of examples:
La señora pulpo me contó que tenía muchos hijitos a punto de nacer,
Lady octopus told me that she had many children about to be born,
Captions 21-22, Guillermina y Candelario La Señora PulpoPlay Caption
Estoy súper emocionada, pues estoy a punto de ingresar a uno de los lugares más emblemáticos
I'm super excited because I'm about to enter one of the most symbolic places
Captions 10-12, Paseando con Karen Barrio AntiguoPlay Caption
Cuando estaba a punto de huir y regresar a mi casa, hubo un milagro que salvó mi bachillerato.
When I was about to flee and go back home, there was a miracle that saved my high school diploma.
Captions 18-19, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 1 - Part 5Play Caption
If you keep in mind the last two sentences, it is worth mentioning that most of the time in Spanish we use the verb estar (to be) before a punto de + infinitive verb. As we mentioned previously, we use this formula for sentences in the past as well as the present.
Now that you know how to use a punto and a punto de, we can say that apunto (one word) corresponds to the first person singular of the verb apuntar in the present tense. Apuntar can mean:
To point out something
To take notes or write down something
To subscribe to something
Let's see an example:
A cogerlos con la mano, me apunto. -Cógelo con las manos.
For taking them with my hand, I'll sign up. -Take it with your hands.
Caption 25, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 17Play Caption
So, now that we have revealed the meanings and uses of both a punto and apunto, it's time to see the answers to the quiz we used to introduce this lesson:
Te apunto en la lista de pacientes.
I'll write you down on the patient list.
Caption 27, Ariana Cita médicaPlay Caption
En mil novecientos ochenta y cinco, sucedieron muchas cosas buenas. Colombia estuvo a punto de conseguir la paz.
In nineteen eighty-five, many good things happened. Colombia was about to achieve peace.
Captions 2-3, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 1 - Part 2Play Caption
And that's it for now. We hope you enjoyed this lesson and don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.
Do you know the names of the months in Spanish? Believe it or not, the names of the months in Spanish are quite similar to their English equivalents. Let's look at how to write and pronounce the months of the year in Spanish language.
The answer is mes. If you want to use the plural form, you need to use the term meses. Also, when talking about months in Spanish keep in mind the following:
One month: Un mes
Two months: Dos meses
Last month: El mes pasado
Next month: El próximo mes
Before we hear how to pronounce the names of the 12 months in Spanish, let's take a look at the following list featuring the months in Spanish and English:
Let's hear the following sentences so you can practice the pronunciation of the 12 months in Spanish.
Estos son los meses del año. Enero.
These are the months of the year. January.
Captions 1-2, El Aula Azul Estaciones y MesesPlay Caption
diecinueve de febrero. -¡Oh! ¿Diecinueve de febrero?
February nineteenth. -Oh! February nineteenth?
Captions 13-14, Extr@: Extra en español Ep 01 La llegada de Sam - Part 2Play Caption
Las Fallas son unas fiestas que se celebran en Valencia durante el mes de marzo.
The Fallas is a festival celebrated in Valencia during the month of March.
Caption 25, Raquel Fiestas de EspañaPlay Caption
Me gustaría reservar una cabaña para la primera semana de abril.
I would like to reserve a cabin for the first week of April.
Caption 4, Cleer y Lida Reservando una habitaciónPlay Caption
En mayo, salen las flores.
In May, the flowers come out.
Caption 18, El Aula Azul Estaciones y MesesPlay Caption
En junio, empieza el verano.
In June, the summer starts.
Caption 19, El Aula Azul Estaciones y MesesPlay Caption
En julio. Vendría el mes de julio entero.
In July. He'd come for the whole month of July.Play Caption
en agosto, miles de voluntarios vienen a este sitio
in August, thousands of volunteers come to this site
Caption 53, Rosa Laguna Fuente de PiedraPlay Caption
Por ejemplo, durante el Festival de Cine que se celebra en San Sebastián en el mes de septiembre.
For example, during the Film Festival that is held in San Sebastian in the month of September.
Captions 13-14, San Sebastián Palacio de MiramarPlay Caption
Desde octubre se comienza la venta de los monigotes.
From October the selling of the dolls begins.
Caption 55, Otavalo Artesano de monigotes de Año ViejoPlay Caption
Fue inaugurado el treinta de noviembre de mil novecientos noventa y cuatro.
It was opened on November thirtieth nineteen ninety-four.Play Caption
Normalmente, suele nevar en diciembre,
Normally, it typically snows in December,
Caption 69, Clara y Cristina Hablan de actividadesPlay Caption
Finally, did you notice anything in particular in the previous sentences regarding the spelling of the names of the months in Spanish? Unlike English, in Spanish the names of the months don't have to be capitalized.
That's it for today. Try to write a couple of sentences with the months in Spanish and read them aloud so you can practice their pronunciation. And don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.
Let's talk about gender. How do you know if a word like leche (milk) or mapa (map) is feminine or masculine? Let's explore some rules (and exceptions) that will help you to identify the gender of inanimate objects in Spanish. Please, keep in mind that we will use the definite articles el (masculine) and la (feminine) in order to better recognize the gender of the nouns we are mentioning throughout this article.
Generally speaking, nouns that end in -o are masculine while those ending in -a are feminine. Let's see some of the most common objects that follow this rule:
El libro (the book)
El baño (the bathroom)
El piano (the piano)
El diccionario (the dictionary)
El asiento (the seat)
La casa (the house)
La cama (the bed)
La lámpara (the lamp)
La cocina (the kitchen)
La caja (the box)
However, there are some exceptions to this rule. Let's look at some of the most common ones.
La mano derecha se colocará en esta posición llamada acorde de LA mayor,
The right hand will be placed in this position called A major chord,Play Caption
Es la foto de mis abuelos, es mi familia.
It's a photo of my grandparents. It's my family.
Caption 5, Yago 3 La foto - Part 8Play Caption
Y bueno, el día llega a su fin, y llegas a casa a relajarte,
And well, the day comes to an end, and you get home to relax,
Captions 80-81, Natalia de Ecuador Vocabulario de prendas de vestirPlay Caption
Por ejemplo: problema, el problema, mapa, el mapa.
For example: problem, the problem, map, the map.
Captions 16-17, Isabel El Género Gramatical - Masculino y FemeninoPlay Caption
¿Y pudieron conocer el planeta de su amigo?
And were you able to see your friend's planet?Play Caption
cuando utilizamos el idioma español. Entonces, vamos a hablar entonces ya.
when we use the Spanish language. So, then we are going to talk now.
Captions 5-6, Lecciones con Carolina Errores comunes - Part 5Play Caption
There is no particular rule for this group. Some of the nouns here are masculine while others are feminine. Some examples:
eh... los ordeñadores pasan a pesar la leche para ver la cantidad que produce cada una
um... the milkers go on to weigh the milk to check the quantity that each one produces
Captions 54-55, Gustavo Adolfo Su finca lecheraPlay Caption
Se arma el árbol, el pesebre, los niños llevan sus instrumentos musicales.
The tree is set up, the manger, the children carry their musical instruments.
Caption 40, Lida y Cleer BuñuelosPlay Caption
La India Catalina era la líder de la tribu indígena
India Catalina was the leader of the indigenous tribe
Caption 26, Viajando en Colombia Cartagena en coche - Part 3Play Caption
Let's look at some examples in this group:
Me relajo y contemplo el paisaje.
I relax and I look at the landscape.
Captions 30-31, Natalia de Ecuador Los adverbios de ordenPlay Caption
Cuando me llega el dolor yo me arreglo
When pain hits me I manage
Caption 6, Jorge Celedón, Vicentico Si Me DejanPlay Caption
¿Puedo ver el menú por favor?
Can I see the menu please?
Caption 12, Cata y Cleer En el restaurantePlay Caption
La ciencia nunca falla, caballero.
Science never fails, sir.Play Caption
la acentuación es la acción y efecto de acentuar,
accentuation is the action and effect of accenting,Play Caption
Mi hijo quiere estudiar inglés o japonés el próximo año en la universidad.
My son wants to study English or Japanese next year in college.
Caption 25, Lecciones con Carolina Conjunciones disyuntivasPlay Caption
Tenemos el océano Pacífico y el océano Atlántico
We have the Pacific ocean and the Atlantic ocean
Caption 24, Melany de Guatemala País de la Eterna PrimaveraPlay Caption
El martes, también salí por la noche.
On Tuesday, I also went out at night.
Caption 11, El Aula Azul La Doctora Consejos: El pasadoPlay Caption
y que el cien por cien de las ganancias pues iban destinadas a la coalición española
and one hundred percent of the profits were going to the Spanish coalition
Caption 45, David Bisbal Haciendo Premonición Live - Part 7Play Caption
el azul, donde echamos el papel, cartón, revistas,
the blue one, where we throw away paper, cardboard, magazines,
Caption 4, Rosa ReciclarPlay Caption
Eh... Les recomiendo que vengan a visitar las islas Galápagos.
Um... I recommend that you come to visit the Galapagos Islands.
Caption 1, Galápagos Una visita a este archipiélagoPlay Caption
que queda ubicado sobre la Avenida Jiménez,
which is located on Jiminez Avenue,
Caption 47, Bogotá Chorro de QuevedoPlay Caption
Me gustaría referirme a la pronunciación de dos letras, la "elle" y la "ye".
I'd like to refer to the pronunciation of two letters, the "double l" and the "y."
Captions 6-8, Carlos y Cyndy La pronunciación en Colombia y ArgentinaPlay Caption
There are some inanimate nouns that can be either feminine or masculine, which means both forms are accepted.
El mar / la mar (the sea). For this noun, the masculine form is used more often.
El maratón / la maratón (the marathon). Both forms are accepted.
El arte / las artes (the arts). Usually the masculine form is used in the singular and the feminine one in the plural.
El sartén / la sartén (the pan). While the masculine noun is the most frequently used, some countries in the Americas tend to favor the feminine form.
There are various words that are almost identical but they differ in meaning. Very often, indeed, you can fully grasp that difference by bringing the gender variable into it. Let's see some examples:
El cuchillo (the knife) / La cuchilla (the blade)
El barco (the ship) / La barca (the boat)
El bolso (the purse) / La bolsa (the bag)
El puerto (the port) / la puerta (the door)
El cuadro (the painting) / La cuadra (the block)
El manzano (the apple tree) / La manzana (the apple)
That's it for today. We hope you find this lesson useful and we invite you to send us your comments and suggestions.
¡Hasta la próxima!
Do you know how to say words like lawyer or journalist in Spanish? Today, we will talk about job titles and professions in Spanish so get ready to see how to write and pronounce some of the most common occupations out there. However, before we jump into the list of professions, let's see how to ask a very basic question when it comes to jobs.
When we want to find out what someone does for a living, we usually use questions like: what do you do for work?, what do you do for a living? or simply, what do you do? There are also different options in Spanish:
¿A qué te dedicas? Soy profesor de fotografía.
What do you do? I'm a photography teacher.
Captions 12-13, 75 minutos Gangas para ricos - Part 5Play Caption
Oye, y ¿en qué trabajas? Estoy trabajando actualmente en una firma de abogados.
Hey, and what do you do [for a living]? I'm working currently at a law firm.
Captions 82-83, Ricardo La compañera de casa - Part 1Play Caption
Ahora, ¿y qué haces tú? Bueno, yo soy mecánico.
Now, what do you do? Well, I'm a mechanic.
Captions 18-19, Encuentro Volkswagen en Adícora Escarabajos en la playa - Part 1Play Caption
You can also use that kind of question even if you are a student:
Bueno, Cristina, ¿tú a qué te dedicas? Estoy estudiando en Sevilla.
Well, Cristina, what do you do for a living? I am studying in Seville.
Captions 60-62, Clara y Cristina SaludarPlay Caption
Now, let's take a look at some of the most common professions in Spanish. Remember to listen to the audioclips so you can hear how to pronounce the word. Also, keep in mind that the names of most professions change with the gender so make sure to take a look at the rules that we will mention about that.
When the masculine noun ends in o, the feminine noun ends in a. There are several professions in Spanish that fall into this group:
1. El abogado | La abogada (The lawyer)
Es un abogado joven que recién se está metiendo en la política.
He's a young lawyer who has recently been getting involved in politics.
Caption 57, Muñeca Brava 45 El secreto - Part 5Play Caption
2. El arquitecto | La arquitecta (The architect)
Bueno, yo soy Leif, eh... soy arquitecto y llevo trabajando en Londres cuatro años.
Well, I am Leif, um... I am an architect and have been working in London for four years.
Captions 2-3, Leif El Arquitecto Español y su Arte - Part 1Play Caption
3. El cajero | La cajera (The cashier)
4. El carpintero | La carpintera (The carpenter)
5. El ingeniero | La ingeniera (The engineer)6
6. El psicólogo | La piscóloga (The psychologist)
When the noun ends in a consonant, you just need to add an a at the end to form the feminine noun.
7. El administrador | La administradora (The administrator)
pero si quiere, yo con mucho gusto hablo con el administrador para que nos ayude.
but if you want, I'll gladly talk to the administrator so he can help us.
Captions 16-17, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 3 - Part 3Play Caption
8. El director | La directora (The director)
9. El editor | La editora (The editor)
10. El doctor | La doctora (The doctor)
Consultorio de la doctora Castaño, buenos días.
Doctor Castaño's office, good morning.Play Caption
If you take the previous 3 nouns, you can see that there are various nouns ending in 'or' that are identical in English and Spanish.
11. El escritor | La escritora (The writer)
12. El profesor | La profesora (The teacher)
Yo soy profesora de español,
I am a Spanish teacher,
Caption 12, El Aula Azul Actividades DiariasPlay Caption
There are also some nouns that end in -ista, -ia and -e, that stay them same for both male and female. However, in order to make the distinction, you need to change the article accordingly. Let's see some examples:
13. El estudiante | La estudiante (The student)
14. El dentista | la dentista (The dentist)
Por ejemplo: el estudiante, la estudiante. El dentista, la dentista.
For example: the male student, the female student. The male dentist, the female dentist.
Captions 32-33, Isabel El Género Gramatical - Masculino y FemeninoPlay Caption
15. El periodista | La periodista (The journalist)
"El periodista escribe el artículo para el periódico".
"The journalist writes the article for the newspaper."
Caption 22, Lecciones con Carolina La voz pasiva - Part 3Play Caption
That's it for today. We know there are hundreds of more occupations and job titles out there. However, we hope this lesson will help you to remember the names of some of the most well-known occupations in Spanish. Try to find 10 professions more and don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.
Argentina shares borders with Brazil, Chile, Bolivia and Paraguay, which means that, geographically speaking, it is separated from many of the other Spanish-speaking countries. This is important for understanding why Spanish from Argentina is a bit different from that of other countries and how the influence of Portuguese and Italian (from the massive immigration at the beginning of the 20th century) shaped Argentine Spanish.
With that being said, let's take a look at some of the most popular Argentine slang words and terms:
It’s a term that seems to come from wakcha in Quechua, the language spoken by the indigenous people in Cuzco, Perú. In Argentina and many other countries, it’s a derogatory word used to describe someone who has lost both their parents.
No, no, no, no tiene padres, es guacha. -¡Padre!
No no, no, she hasn't got parents, she's a bastard. -Father!
Caption 11, Muñeca Brava 1 Piloto - Part 1Play Caption
The term comes from the old lunfardo [criminal slang tango composers used in many of their lyrics] and contrary to what most people think it’s not a derogatory term although it’s not a word you’d use in environments of respect such as your workplace, university or at a doctor’s office.
¿No viste esa mina?
Did you see that chick?
Caption 35, Muñeca Brava 1 Piloto - Part 6Play Caption
The origin of the expression is unclear. The most widely accepted story is that comes from the 1920s in Argentina, when students playing hookey would go to the bars to play pool. Since most of them were new players, and the risk of them tearing the green felt surface of the pool table increased with every kid who arrived, the waiters were given the order “not to give them balls” which was also a way to “ignore” them. So today, used in its negative form, it means “to ignore” and used in its affirmative form it means just the opposite “to pay attention”.
Pero si a vos no te dio bola. ¿Qué te importa?
But she didn't even look at you. What do you care?
Caption 7, Muñeca Brava 1 Piloto - Part 7Play Caption
Boludo is a former insult that has been misused so much that it has become something else. The origin of this word (that can be used as an adjective or noun) lies in the term bolas (balls) and yes, someone boludo is someone with big balls. It’s not clear why it has been used to describe a fool, though. However, in Argentina almost every informal sentence has the word boludo or boluda in it. It has become a way to address someone you are very, very familiar with.
Sí, pero a veces se cae uno a la tierra, boludo, y camina.
Yes, but sometimes one falls to the earth, idiot, and walks.
Caption 39, Muñeca Brava 48 - Soluciones - Part 4Play Caption
It’s an old term that has its origins in the 1920s. It's a derogative way to call women of lower classes and/or those women whose lack of manners make them look like someone from a lower class. There’s a Tango song called “Chirusa” about a poor woman who fell in love with a rich man who was only toying with her. In Muñeca Brava, Milagros is considered a chirusa because of her status as a maid at a manor full of rich people.
¿Qué es chirusa? Y, se podría considerar una mujer vulgar.
What is chirusa? And, it could be considered a vulgar woman.
Captions 45-46, Carlos y Cyndy Comentario sobre Muñeca BravaPlay Caption
The bailanta is a discotheque where they play cumbia, and other kinds of tropical music. In Argentina, people who go to the bailanta are considered of a lower class. As it happens in the episodes of Muñeca Brava, Mili goes to the bailanta because she likes the kind of popular music they play there and also the social environment of the place.
You can see that Ivo is disgusted by it because he comes from a wealthy family and probably goes dancing at other discotheques where they play electronic music or other kinds of tunes associated with a higher socio-cultural level.
Tranquilizate. Vamos a la bailanta, loco.
Calm down. Let's go the club, man.
Caption 71, Muñeca Brava 18 - La Apuesta - Part 2Play Caption
The origin of the word colectivo comes from the early days of taxicabs. When, because of the economy, taxis became too expensive for a large portion of the population, they put in place a sort of carpooling service where two or more strangers would share the ride and split the cost. As more and more people began sharing the same taxi, transportation companies saw this trend as an opportunity and built larger taxicabs which they called colectivo coming from the word “collective” since they transported a group of people in them.
In Argentine slang, another way to refer to the colectivo is bondi. Since the colectivo is one of the least expensive ways to travel, a recently founded airline in Argentina named themselves “flybondi” and offer low-cost flights within Argentina.
No crea, ¿eh? En bondi, eh... en colectivo, llego al toque.
Not really, huh? By bondi [slang for "bus"], um... by bus, I get here in a jiffy.
Caption 32, Muñeca Brava 47 Esperanzas - Part 6Play Caption
Argentinians use the word che in almost every sentence. It's an interjection with no specific meaning, used to get someone's attention. It is unclear where the word comes from, although there are several theories. Some people say it comes from the Mapuches indigenous people, in whose language che means “person”.
Another theory suggests it comes from the sound someone makes when they want to be heard, very similar to the “pstt” but more like “chh”. Che is used during conversations (never in formal speech) the same way you would use the word “hey!” or at the end of the sentence, as a tag, in a conversation.
Che boluda... ¿qué te pasa? Estás como loca hoy.
Hey silly [potentially insulting, not amongst close friends]... what's up? Today you're like crazy.
Caption 3, Cuatro Amigas Piloto - Part 3Play Caption
Rajar connotes urgency. When people use rajar at the moment of firing an employee or when they ask somebody to leave, the idea is to do it “immediately.” Let's see an example:
"La voy a hacer rajar". "Rajar", ¿qué significa? Significa "la voy a hacer echar". -Mmm.
"La voy a hacer rajar." "Rajar," what does it mean? It means "I'm going to get her fired." -Mmm.
Captions 72-74, Carlos y Cyndy Comentario sobre Muñeca BravaPlay Caption
The term arrugar literally means “to wrinkle”. In the context of physical combat, when one of the fighters gets scared, insecure or for any reason doesn’t want to fight, you can easily compare their body language to the action of wrinkling. Today in Argentina the term is used for any situation, not only physical combat. It’s mostly used when somebody dares another person to do something and they agree at the beginning but change their minds at the last minute.
Vine porque tengo muchísimas ganas de cobrar mi apuesta. ¿Qué apuesta? ¿No me digas que arrugaste?
I came because I'm eager to collect my bet. What bet? Don't tell me you're backing out?
Captions 10-12, Verano Eterno Fiesta Grande - Part 8Play Caption
Wiht this last term, we have arrived to the end of this lesson about top Argentinian slang and idiomatic expressions. Now that you’re ready to walk around the streets of Buenos Aires we want to leave you with a final challenge. Do you understand the meaning of the following sentence?:
¡Che, boludo, ese colectivo nos lleva a la bailanta! No arrugues ahora, que vamos a conocer muchas minas.
We hope you enjoy this lesson and don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.
As a beginner Spanish student, the word bajo may well be among the first words one learns, typically as an adjective meaning “short.” However, like many words in Spanish, this word has a whole plethora of meanings and can additionally function as a preposition, adverb, noun, and even a verb!
Let’s start by examining the use of the word bajo as a preposition. Although its translation is almost always “under” or “below,” like its English equivalent, this could refer not only to physical location, but also to the state of being subject to some influence. Let’s take a look at the following examples from our Yabla Spanish library.
One possible meaning of the preposition bajo is "in a position below something else":
pero no entiendo qué hace mi amiga un día de semana bajo este árbol tan maravilloso.
but I don't understand what is my friend doing on a weekday under this wonderful tree.Play Caption
Another, similar meaning of “bajo,” which also involves location, suggests that something is beneath the surface or covered by something:
Tengo aquí bajo mi almohada tu fotografía
I have your picture here under my pillow
Caption 20, La Oreja de Van Gogh InmortalPlay Caption
Moving on to uses of the preposition bajo not involving location, like “under” in English, bajo could also express the concept of being less than:
congelando lo que es la punta de la botella en una solución que está a diez o quince grados bajo cero.
freezing the tip of the bottle in a solution that is ten or fifteen degrees below zero.
Captions 33-34, Europa Abierta Champagne en AndalucíaPlay Caption
The Spanish preposition bajo could additionally mean "in accordance with" or "subject to the terms of," for example, some agreement:
Algunos clientes bajo contrato, le pre-maduramos la fruta
[For] some customers under contract, we pre-ripen the fruit
Caption 99, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 18Play Caption
And finally, although we have only touched on some of its many nuanced meanings, we’ll take a look at an example in which the preposition bajo entails being managed or governed by something:
Para su información, todo el personal de servicio está bajo mi mando, ¿sí?
For your information, all the service staff is under my authority, right?
Caption 49, Muñeca Brava 3 Nueva Casa - Part 8Play Caption
Now, let’s look at bajo as an adjective. Its most common translations are “short” or “low,” both in terms of height or level and in reference to intensity or morality. Here are some examples from the Yabla Spanish video library:
Y es muy gracioso porque Pedro es todo lo contrario de Carolina. Es bajo, es gordo,
And it's very funny because Pedro is totally the opposite of Carolina. He's short, he's fat,
Captions 32-33, El Aula Azul Mis PrimosPlay Caption
Desde chiquito el bajo mundo conocía
Since he was a child, he knew the underworld
Caption 4, La Secta ConsejoPlay Caption
Se manifestaban porque el sueldo era muy bajo,
They were on strike because their salary was very low,
Caption 33, Con ánimo de lucro Cortometraje - Part 4Play Caption
As an adverb, bajo could also be translated as “low” in some cases (for example, when describing a helicopter flying “low”) or “softly” or “quietly” when referring to one’s speech:
¡Que le quede claro! -¡Shhhhh, habla bajo!
Let that be clear to you! -Shhhhh, speak quietly!
Caption 42, Yago 7 Encuentros - Part 2Play Caption
Much more straightforwardly, as a noun, the word bajo refers to the musical instrument, the bass:
Entonces yo dije: "Yo... yo puedo tocar... Yo puedo tocar el bajo."
So, I said, "I... I can play... I can play the bass."
Caption 50, Carli Muñoz Niñez - Part 2Play Caption
And finally, it is worth noting that bajo is the first person singular, present tense conjugation of the verb “bajar” (to go or come down or get off or out).
Ya está, la comida... -Sí, sí, sí, ya, yo ya bajo.
It's ready, the food... -Yes, yes, yes, now, I'm coming down now.
Caption 72, Muñeca Brava 44 El encuentro - Part 6Play Caption
We hope that this lesson has shed light on some of the ways the word bajo can function as a preposition - in addition to a noun, verb, adjective or adverb! If you would like to see many additional examples in context, simply enter the word bajo in the search bar at the top of the Videos page to find matches in the transcripts of the Yabla Spanish library. And don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.
Let's start this lesson with a little quiz. Do you know how to write superhero in Spanish? Choose one of the following:
a. Super héroe
c. Súper héroe
If you don't know the answer, this lesson will help you to find out which one is the proper spelling.
When it works as a prefix, the word super has different meanings. Sometimes, it means 'above' like in the word superestructura (superstructure). It can also mean 'excellence' or 'superiority':
¿Con el superagente, Jaime Suárez?
With the super-agent, Jaime Suarez?Play Caption
In some words, the prefix super expresses the 'highest degree' of something:
Eh... La iglesia es superhermosa.
Um... The church is super beautiful.
Caption 14, Bogotá Una visita a la ciudadPlay Caption
And finally, the prefix super can also indicate the 'excess' of something:
Ehm... Tenemos la... la... la... la... la superpoblación,
Um... We have (the... the... the... the... the) overpopulation,Play Caption
Have you ever seen the word súper with an accent? If you think that súper is the same as super (with no accent), you are wrong. The word súper needs the accent only in the following situations:
1. When it is used as a noun for the short form of the word supermercado (supermarket) or the type of gasoline:
Roberto fue al súper a comprar naranjas.
Roberto went to the supermarket to buy oranges.
2. When it works as an adjective or adverb to express that someone or something is/was great:
Súper, y ¿qué le dijeron de Gastón Almanza?
Super, and what did they tell you about Gaston Almanza?Play Caption
The simplest thing to remember here is that the prefix super doesn't have a graphic accent.
Believe it or not, there are many native Spanish speakers who don't know how to properly write words that are formed with the prefix super. The main rule, however, is quite simple: When writing, the prefix super should be connected to the word that follows. With that simple rule, we can answer the question we posed at the beggining of this lesson:
Y tengo de superhéroe lo que Juanes de vallenato
And I've got from a superhero what Juanes [has] from vallenato
Caption 30, Juanes La PlataPlay Caption
However, every rule has its exception and this rule has the following one:
When the word that follows super starts with a capital letter or when this prefix is followed by a number, you need to add a hyphen:
super-Obama or super-10
You need to leave a space after super when it goes before a series of words that have their own meaning:
Yo siempre me he sentido super a gusto cantando al lado de ese grandísimo músico...
I have always felt pretty at home singing along this great musician...
Caption 50, David Bisbal Haciendo Premonición Live - Part 5Play Caption
That's it for today. We invite you to write 10 words with the prefix super. And don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.
Do you know the days of the week in Spanish? Do words like lunes or domingo sound familiar to you? In this lesson, we will review the days of the week in Spanish in three different ways. First, you can listen to some random sentences containing the days of the week. Then, you will have the chance to listen to a short clip that shows you how to pronounce each day of the week. Finally, we will leave you with a list of the days of the week in Spanish and English. We hope this repetition helps you to memorize the names of the 7 days of the week in Spanish.
We use the days of the week all the time! The following sentences will help us to get familiar with the sound of the days of the week.
El lunes, por ejemplo, fui a trabajar.
On Monday for example, I went to work.
Caption 6, El Aula Azul La Doctora Consejos: El pasadoPlay Caption
Los martes, además, tenemos las "Tardes de Intercambio".
On Tuesdays, additionally, we have the "Exchange Afternoons."Play Caption
Todos los miércoles, voy con mi mejor amiga al cine.
Every Wednesday, I go with my best friend to the movies.
Caption 18, Ariana Mi SemanaPlay Caption
"Todos los jueves, aprendía nuevas canciones en mi clase de guitarra".
"Every Thursday, I used to learn new songs in my guitar class."
Caption 57, Carlos explica El pretérito Cap 4: Imperfecto IPlay Caption
Pensaré cada día en Daniel cuando él vuele a Guatemala el próximo viernes.
I will think about Daniel every day when he flies to Guatemala next Friday.
Caption 36, Conjugación El verbo 'pensar'Play Caption
El día más fuerte, o sea, de mayor afluencia de personal sería el sábado.
The busiest day, I mean, the one with the largest influx of people would be Saturday.
Caption 25, Mercado de San Miguel MisaelPlay Caption
Estaba pensando, el domingo me gustaría invitar a los Mendoza a tomar onces para que se animen un poquito, ¿hmm?
I was thinking, on Sunday I would like to invite the Mendozas to have an afternoon snack so that they can cheer up a little but, hmm?
Captions 11-12, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 4 - Part 6Play Caption
Let's take these sentences to mention something important. The plural form of the days of the week that end in 's' (lunes, martes, miércoles, jueves and viernes) is the same as their singular form. However, if you want to say the plural form of the days of the week that end in vowels (sábado and domingo), you need to add the letter 's' at the end. Here is a list of the singular and plural forms of the days of the week in Spanish:
el lunes - los lunes
el martes - los martes
el miércoles - los miércoles
el jueves - los jueves
el viernes - los viernes
el sábado - los sábados
el domingo - los domingos
Are you ready to practice the pronunciation of the 7 days of the week in Spanish? Let's take a look at the following clip from our friends Maru and Sol from GoSpanish.
Lunes, martes, miércoles, jueves. ¿Me ayudas, Sol? Sí. Viernes, sábado, y domingo.
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday. Can you help me, Sol? Yes. Friday, Saturday, and Sunday.
Captions 24-32, Español para principiantes Los días de la semanaPlay Caption
In order to help you remember the names of the week in Spanish, the following list contains the days of the week in Spanish and English:
Lunes - Monday
Martes - Tuesday
Miércoles - Wednesday
Jueves - Thursday
Viernes - Friday
Sábado - Saturday
Domingo - Sunday
There is something important to remember: Unlike English, the days of the week in Spanish are not capitalized. They are capitalized only if they appear at the beginning of a sentence.
That's it for today. Try to write a couple of sentences with the days of the week in Spanish and read them aloud so you can practice their pronunciation. And don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.
Bravo/brava is an adjective with various meanings in Spanish. We use it when we want to say someone is brave or courageous. In some Spanish-speaking countries, however, bravo/brava is also used as a synonym for angry, mad or upset. This adjective can also help us describe the world around us by meaning rough or fierce. Finally, we also use bravo when we want to acknowledge someone's work in a positive way.
As mentioned above, bravo is synonym for brave or courageous. Let's take a look at the following sentence:
Siendo el más bravo de todos, Miguel fue el primero que saltó del trampolín.
Being the bravest of all, Miguel was the first to jump off the diving board.
In some countries such as, for example, Colombia, bravo/brava is used when we want to say that someone is angry or upset:
Kevin, su novia está muy brava. Deb'... En este contexto, "brava" es sinónimo de enojada o enfadada.
Kevin, your girlfriend is very mad. You nee'... In this context, "brava," is a synonym of mad or angry.
Captions 17-18, Carlos comenta Los Años Maravillosos - Forma de hablarPlay Caption
Bravo is also a very useful word for describing nature. For instance, bravo is a very common adjective when talking about a rough or choppy sea or river. Similarly, when talking about animals, bravo/brava can describe an animal that is fierce.
El agua estaba muy brava, y soplaba un viento muy fuerte.
The water was very choppy, and a very strong wind was blowing.
Captions 30-31, Guillermina y Candelario Capitan CandelarioPlay Caption
Have you ever been in a theater where people shout "bravo" at the end of a play? Well, in Spanish we also use bravo the same way. However, we also say bravo/brava when we want to tell to someone they did something good, or did a good job. In other words, we use bravo/brava to say "well done" or "good for you."
Apart from that, we also use bravo/brava in various specific situations. For example, when you have to do something you don't want to do, you can say you did it "a la brava" (by force). We also use brava/bravo to express a very strong desire:
¡Oiga, que sed tan brava!
Hey, what a strong thirst!
Caption 52, Kikirikí Agua - Part 1Play Caption
Bravo/brava is also used in the context of sports:
- Barra brava or barrabrava (a group of hooligans in football/soccer)
- "Hacer barra" (to cheer up someone or a team)
That's all for today. We hope this lesson helped you to expand your vocabulary. And don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.
Today, we will talk about the plural in Spanish. In particular, we will talk about the plural when referred to nouns. Let's start this lesson with a little quiz. Do you know what is the plural form of the following nouns?:
1. Casa (house)
2. Perro (dog)
3. Universidad (university)
4. Lápiz (pencil)
5. Jabalí (wild boar)
6. Análisis (analysis)
If you are not sure about how to make a singular noun plural in Spanish, we invite you to take a look at the following simple rules. While going through these rules, we will be unveiling the plural form of the 6 nouns we included in our quiz. Let's take a look.
- Casa (house) - Casas (houses)
- Estudiante (student) - Estudiantes (students)
- Perro (perro) - Perros (dogs)
Se escucha un perro.
You can hear a dog.Play Caption
Tus perros también son muy bonitos.
Your dogs are very beautiful too.Play Caption
- Papá (dad) - Papás (dads)
- Dominó (domino) - Dominós (dominoes)
- Café (coffee) - Cafés (coffees)
y les voy a mostrar el proceso de control de calidad de café de Colombia.
and I'm going to show you the quality-control process for coffee from Colombia.
Caption 5, Una Historia de Café La BodegaPlay Caption
Cada uno de estos cafés tiene distintas cualidades tanto físicas como sensoriales
Each one of these coffees has different qualities both physically and sensorially.
Caption 14, Una Historia de Café La BodegaPlay Caption
- Bisturí (scalpel) - Bisturíes or bisturís (scalpels)
- Jabalí (wild boar) - Jabalíes or jabalís (wild boars)
- Tabú (taboo) - Tabúes or tabús (taboos)
Generally speaking, however, it is preferred to use the plural formed with 'ES'.
Also, this rule is very common when you are dealing with adjectives of nationality:
- Iraní (Iranian) - Iraníes or iranís (Iranians)
- Árbol (tree) - Árboles (trees)
- Profesor (teacher) - Profesores (teachers)
- Universidad (university) - Universidades (universities)
- Rey (king) - Reyes (kings)
La rata esta es el rey de la estafa por allá en Europa.
This rat is the king con artist over there in Europe.Play Caption
Actualmente es la residencia oficial de los reyes de España,
Currently, it's the official residence of the King and Queen of Spain,
Caption 23, Madrid Un recorrido por la capital de EspañaPlay Caption
Notice that the singular noun árbol has a graphic accent in the second-to-last syllable (palabra grave). However, when you form the plural, the graphic accent moves to the third-to-last-syllable becoming a proparoxytone word (palabra esdrújula). Similarly, singular nouns like profesor and universidad that are stressed in the last syllable (palabras agudas) become paroxytone words (palabras graves) in the plural form.
- Lápiz (pencil) - Lápices (pencils)
- Raíz (root) - Raíces (roots)
- Voz (voice) - Voces (voices)
Tengo muy buena voz,
I have a very good voice,Play Caption
vuelven esas voces a mi cabeza.
those voices come back to my head.Play Caption
Paroxytone or proparoxytone nouns ending in 's' or 'x' keep the same form in plural. Let's see some examples:
- Cactus (cactus) - Cactus (cactuses/cacti)
- Tórax (thorax) - Tórax (thoraxes/thoraces)
- Análisis (analysis) - Análisis (analyses/tests)
y en un análisis de nuestras debilidades, oportunidades, fortalezas y amenazas.
and an analysis of our weaknesses, opportunities, strengths and threats.Play Caption
para hacerle los análisis de sangre, de heces,
to do the blood tests, stool (tests),
Caption 54, Santuario para burros Santuario - Part 1Play Caption
That's it for now. We hope these rules help you to use the plural in Spanish. If you feel like practicing a little bit more, take 20 nouns and try to form their plural forms. And of course, don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.
How well do you know the Spanish alphabet? Do you know how many letters are in the Spanish alphabet? What about the number of consonants and vowels that are part of it? This lesson answers these questions and provides a series of audio clips that will help you to learn the letters and improve the pronunciation of the Spanish alphabet. Let's take a look.
Believe it or not, there are actually two words in Spanish that we use to talk about the alphabet. While the most literal translation would be the word alfabeto, you can also use the word abecedario when referring to the Spanish alphabet. In fact, and according to the Real Academia Española (RAE), these two words are synonyms.
There are 27 letters in the Spanish alphabet. But do you know how many of those letters are consonants and how many vowels are in the Spanish alphabet? The answer is very simple. In the Spanish alphabet there are 22 consonants and 5 vowels (a, e, i, o, u). Let’s go over all the Spanish alphabet letters with the following 27 words:
A as in agua (water)
¿También tienes agua?
Do you have water too?Play Caption
B as in burro (donkey)
El burro es un animal ideal para este tipo de actividades
The donkey is an ideal animal for this kind of activity
Caption 71, Rosa - Yoga con burrosPlay Caption
C as in coche (car)
Hoy, voy en coche porque hace mucho frío.
Today, I'm going by car because it's very cold.
Caption 16, Ariana - Cena especialPlay Caption
D as in difícil (difficult)
Es muy difícil. -Muy complicado.
It's very difficult. -Very complicated.
Caption 31, Blanca y Mariona - Planificación de cenaPlay Caption
E as in ellos (they)
Ellos se llevan muy bien.
They get along very well.
Caption 41, El Aula Azul - Mis PrimosPlay Caption
F as in fácil (easy)
Basta, es muy fácil.
Enough, it's very easy.Play Caption
G as in gente (people)
Barcelona se llena de gente,
Barcelona fills up with people,
Caption 17, Blanca - Sobre la ciudad de BarcelonaPlay Caption
H as in hotel (hotel)
El hotel también cuenta con un bar.
The hotel also has a bar.
Caption 73, Cleer y Lida - Recepción de hotelPlay Caption
I as in iglesia (church)
Esta iglesia fue construida en mil seiscientos ochenta y uno.
This church was built in sixteen eighty one.Play Caption
J as in jamón (ham)
Fíjate: jamón, Javier.
Check it out: ham, Javier.
Caption 27, Fundamentos del Español - 10 - La PronunciaciónPlay Caption
K as in kilo (kilo)
Reciclando un kilo de vidrio...
[By] recycling a kilo of glass...
Caption 70, 3R - Campaña de reciclaje - Part 1Play Caption
L as in lago (lake)
Hay un lago.
There is a lake.
Caption 11, Natalia de Ecuador - Los adverbios de ordenPlay Caption
M as in mercado (market)
y están presentes en el mercado internacional.
and are present in the international market.
Caption 73, Europa Abierta - Champagne en AndalucíaPlay Caption
N as in nunca (never)
Nadie, nada, nunca,
Nobody, nothing, never,
Caption 21, Fundamentos del Español - 5 - La NegaciónPlay Caption
Ñ as in the middle of the word niño (boy)
La frase, el niño quiere el juguete,
The sentence, "the boy wants the toy,"
Caption 17, Raquel - Diminutivos y aumentativosPlay Caption
O as in objeto (object)
Y "tendedero" es un objeto para la ropa
And "tendedero" is an object for clothes
Caption 27, Karla e Isabel - PalabrasPlay Caption
P as in parque (park)
aquí en Parque Fundidora.
here in Fundidora Park.Play Caption
Q as in queso (cheese)
un vaso de leche y queso,
a glass of milk and cheese,
Caption 16, Recetas de Clara - Los aborrajados - Part 1Play Caption
R as in rápidamente (quickly)
Vamos a ver rápidamente una frase
We are going to look quickly at a phrasePlay Caption
S as in sal (salt)
Muchos mercaderes venían a recoger la sal,
Many merchants came to get the salt,
Caption 14, Rosa - Fuente de PiedraPlay Caption
T as in trabajo (job)
¿Qué trabajo es?
What job is it?
Caption 23, Sofy y Caro - Entrevistar para un trabajoPlay Caption
U as in universidad (university)
¿La biblioteca de la universidad?
The university library?Play Caption
V as in viento (wind)
y un viento muy fuerte nos arrastró a mar abierto.
and a very strong wind dragged us out to the open sea.Play Caption
W as in wifi (wifi)
Tenemos también wifi y hay ordenadores disponibles.
We also have wifi and there are computers available.Play Caption
X as in xilófono (xylophone)
Entonces, había una persona contando un cuento y él tocando un xilófono.
So, there was a person telling a story and he [was] playing a xylophone.
Caption 28, La Sub30 - Familias - Part 4Play Caption
Y as in yuca (yucca)
Aquí tenemos la yuca,
Here we have the yucca,
Caption 7, Recetas de cocina - CarimañolasPlay Caption
Z as in zona (zone)
Es la primera vez que vengo a esta zona de la ciudad
It's the first time I've come to this area of the cityPlay Caption
If you want to improve your pronunciation of the Spanish alphabet, please take a look at the following audio clips where Marta, one of our Spanish teachers, will teach you how to properly pronounce the Spanis alphabet letters:
A, be, ce, de, e,
A, b, c, d, e,
Caption 19, Fundamentos del Español - 1 - El AlfabetoPlay Caption
efe, ge, hache, i, jota,
f, g, h, i, j,
Caption 20, Fundamentos del Español - 1 - El AlfabetoPlay Caption
ka, ele, eme, ene, eñe,
k, l, m, n, ñ,
Caption 21, Fundamentos del Español - 1 - El AlfabetoPlay Caption
o, pe, cu, erre, ese,
o, p, q, r, s,
Caption 22, Fundamentos del Español - 1 - El AlfabetoPlay Caption
te, u, uve, uve doble,
t, u, v, w,
Caption 23, Fundamentos del Español - 1 - El AlfabetoPlay Caption
equis, i griega
x, y [literally: "Greek i"]
Caption 24, Fundamentos del Español - 1 - El AlfabetoPlay Caption
Caption 25, Fundamentos del Español - 1 - El AlfabetoPlay Caption
Keep in mind that you can also refer to the letter W as doble ve (double v) or doble u (double u). Similarly, you can also call the letter Y ye instead of i griega (Greek i).
That's it for now. If you feel like practicing a little bit more, try to write one word with each one of the 27 Spanish alphabet letters. And of course, don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions.
Let’s talk about accentuation and pronunciation. Today, we’ll discuss the so-called palabras esdrújulas (proparoxytone words). That’s a weird name, isn’t? Before we talk about palabras esdrújulas, we need to remember something important.
As we previously mentioned, all words in Spanish are stressed on one syllable. Depending on where that stress falls, words are divided into the following groups:
Palabras agudas (oxytone words) | accent on the last syllable
Palabras graves (paroxytone words) | accent on the second-to-last syllable
Palabras esdrújulas (proparoxytone words) | accent on the third-to-last syllable
Palabras sobresdrújulas (over-proparoxytone words) | accent on any syllable before the third-to-last syllable
Let’s get into palabras esdrújulas with the following example:
Palabras como micrófono, pirámide
Words like "micrófono," [microphone], "pirámide" [pyramid]Play Caption
The word micrófono has four syllables (mi | cró | fo | no) and the stress goes on the third-to-last syllable “cró.” Similarly, the word pirámide has four syllables (pi | rá | mi |de) and the stress also goes on the third-to-last syllable “rá.”
If you noticed it, the two proparoxytone words that we just mentioned bear a graphic accent (tilde) on their stressed syllables. And that’s exactly the beauty of the palabras esdrújulas. Unlike palabras agudas and palabras graves, which follow complex rules regarding the use of the graphic accent, the esdrújulas ALWAYS need to have a graphic accent. Let’s see more examples:
También nos dedicamos a música clásica.
Also, we do classical music.
Caption 13, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana PatyPlay Caption
ya construimos la cámara para grabar la película.
we already built the camera to film the movie.Play Caption
Yo realmente prefiero no dar mi número de mi tarjeta de crédito por teléfono.
I really prefer not to give my credit card number on the phone.
Caption 50, Cleer y Lida Reservando una habitaciónPlay Caption
As you can see from the examples above, there are lots of palabras esdrújulas in the Spanish language and some of them are quite common. Before we go, one last curious thing to remember:
The word esdrújula is also a esdrújula word!
That's it for now. If you feel like practicing a little bit more, take one of our videos and try to find all the proparoxytone words in it. And of course, don’t forget to send your feedback and suggestions to email@example.com.
Are you ready to learn some hard Spanish words? Don’t worry! We don’t want to scare you but rather we would like to highlight some of the issues that transform even simple words into difficult ones. Let’s review the following list featuring 100 of the most difficult Spanish words for English speakers.
Pronunciation is definitely the issue to keep in mind when we talk about hard Spanish words. In fact, if you are a native English speaker, there are several sounds that are quite challenging. Let’s start with some of the most difficult words to pronounce in Spanish for English speakers. We have divided these words in groups according to the pronunciation challenge they represent.
For many foreigners, words with the letter “j” are some of the most difficult Spanish words to say. If you are an English speaker, you can try to say the “j” in Spanish as a very strong “h” in English. Think of how you pronounce the letter “h” in the word ham. Let’s take a look:
1. Ají (chili or bell pepper)
"Ají" [chili pepper]?
Caption 37, Ricardo - La compañera de casa - Part 3Play Caption
2. Bajo (short)
Es bajo, es gordo,
He's short, he's fat,
Caption 33, El Aula Azul Mis PrimosPlay Caption
3. Caja (box)
y ellos también mandaron una caja grandísima
and they also sent a huge boxPlay Caption
4. Anaranjado (orange)
Adentro, son de color anaranjado.
Inside, they are orange-colored.Play Caption
5. Empujar (to push)
6. Equipaje (luggage)
¿Puedo dejar aquí mi equipaje?
Can I leave my luggage here?
Caption 59, Cleer y Lida - Recepción de hotelPlay Caption
7. Espantapájaros (scarecrow)
8. Cojear (to limp)
9. Injusticia (injustice)
10. Jamón (ham)
Fíjate: jamón, Javier.
Check it out: ham, Javier.
Caption 27, Fundamentos del Español - 10 - La PronunciaciónPlay Caption
11. Jirafa (giraffe)
12. Jornada (day)
13. Jota (J - the sound of the letter J in Spanish)
14. Jugar (to play)
También podemos jugar a las cartas,
We can also play cards,
Caption 12, Clara y Cristina - Hablan de actividadesPlay Caption
15. Junio (June)
16. Lujoso (luxurious)
17. Lejano (far, far away)
Érase una vez en un lejano reino, ahí vivía una joven niña.
Once upon a time in a faraway kingdom, there lived a young girl.
Caption 2, Cuentos de hadas - La Cenicienta - Part 1Play Caption
18. Majo (nice)
19. Mojado (wet)
20. Pájaro (bird)
21. Sonrojar (to blush)
22. Tajada (slice)
Just as it happens with the letter “j,”, there are several tricky words in Spanish with the letter “g”. What’s hard about this consonant is that there is a soft and a hard way to pronounce it. For example, you have a soft “g” in the word gato (cat). Think about the pronunciation of the syllable “ga” in the word gather. On the other hand, you have a hard “g” in the word gente (people), which is kind of similar to how you pronounce the “h” in the word helmet. Let’s see some tough Spanish words with the letter “g”:
23. Acogedor (cozy, welcoming)
Perfecto, porque es un barco muy marinero, muy acogedor para la gente,
Perfect, because it's a very seaworthy boat, very welcoming for the people,
Caption 16, La Gala - El bote de DalíPlay Caption
24. Agente (agent)
25. Agitar (shake)
26. Aguja (needle)
27. Agujero (hole)
Tiene un cuerpo con un agujero en el centro
It has a body with a hole in the center
Caption 45, Karla e Isabel - Instrumentos musicalesPlay Caption
28. Apagar (to turn off)
29. Coger (to take, to get)
El segundo paso es coger la cebolla,
The second step is to get the onion,
Caption 25, Clara cocina - Una tortilla españolaPlay Caption
30. Garganta (throat)
Me duele la garganta,
My throat hurts,
Caption 11, Ariana - Cita médicaPlay Caption
31. General (general)
En general, los nombres acabados en "a" son femeninos
In general, nouns ending in "a" are feminine
Caption 10, Fundamentos del Español - 2 - Nombres y GéneroPlay Caption
32. Geneaología (genealogy)
33. Geología (geology)
34. Gigante (giant, gigantic)
Una de las piezas más llamativas es este ajedrez gigante.
One of the most appealing pieces is this gigantic chess board.Play Caption
35. Ginecólogo (gynecologist)
36. Girasol (sunflower)
37. Guapo (handsome)
38. Juguetón (playful)
39. Tangible (tangible)
40. Tigre (tiger)
41. Zoológico (zoo)
There are plenty of tricky words in Spanish with the strong sound of the double “rr”. The following are some of them:
42. Aburrido (bored)
Ah, esto está muy aburrido, ni siquiera se entiende.
Oh, this is very boring, you can't even understand it.
Caption 24, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 2 - Part 4Play Caption
43. Carrera (career)
El presidente empezó su carrera política...
The president began his political career...
Caption 29, Lecciones con Carolina - El gerundio - Part 2Play Caption
44. Carretera (road)
45. Carro (car)
¿Ha venido en carro?
Have you come in a car?
Caption 64, Cleer y Lida - Recepción de hotelPlay Caption
46. Correr (to run)
47. Desarrollar (Develop)
Pero el reto era desarrollar proyectos de biomedicina,
But the challenge was to develop biomedical projects,
Caption 10, Club de las ideas - Lego Fest en SevillaPlay Caption
48. Error (mistake)
Esto es un error
This is a mistakePlay Caption
49. Ferrocarril (railroad, train)
en un carrito tipo ferrocarril tirado por un caballo
in a little train-like car pulled by a horsePlay Caption
50. Garrote (club)
51. Guerra (war)
La palabra más fea es guerra.
The ugliest word is war.
Caption 61, Karla e Isabel - PalabrasPlay Caption
52. Guitarra (guitar)
53. Herradura (horseshoe)
54. Irresponsable (irresponsible)
55. Morral (backpack)
56. Ornitorrinco (platypus)
57. Perro (dog)
Se escucha un perro.
You can hear a dog.Play Caption
58. Puertorriqueño (Puerto Rican)
Without any doubt, words that have a syllable where the consonant “t” is followed by the consonant “r,” are some of the most difficult words for English speakers to pronounce in Spanish. If you want to improve this sound, please listen carefully to some of the audio clips we have included for the next set of words.
59. Abstracto (abstract)
60. Astronomía (astronomy)
61. Astrología (astrology)
y voy a entender lo que es la astrología.
and I am going to understand what astrology is.
Caption 60, Conversaciones con Luis - AstrologíaPlay Caption
62. Atracción (atraction)
Porque es en el centro... el sitio donde hay mayor atracción
Because it's at the center... the place where there are more attractions
Caption 21, Yabla en Lima - MirafloresPlay Caption
63. Cuatro (four)
Número cuatro: microscopio.
Number four: microscope.Play Caption
64. Entretener (to entertain)
65. Entretenido (entertaining)
66. Patrón (patron)
67. Patrulla (patrol)
68. Petróleo (oil)
69. Poltrona (easy chair)
70. Potro (colt)
71. Tradicion (tradition)
uno de los mitos más conocidos de la tradición indígena colombiana,
one of the best known myths of the indigenous Colombian tradition,Play Caption
72. Traicionar (to betray)
73. Trampa (trap)
No, no, me tendió una trampa y yo caí.
No, no, she set a trap for me and I fell into it.
Caption 29, Muñeca Brava - 44 El encuentro - Part 7Play Caption
74. Treinta y tres (thirty-three)
treinta y tres,
75. Tres (three)
76. Trilogía (trilogy)
I am sad.
Caption 10, El Aula Azul - Estados de ánimoPlay Caption
78. Tronco (trunk)
Unlike English, Spanish vowels are very clearly defined. Five vowels equals five sounds, period. While that may sound simple, the problem is that English speakers are used to pronouncing vowels in many more different ways. Here are some hard Spanish words that highlight this challenge.
79. Aguacate (avocado)
Este es guacamole hecho con aguacate...
This is guacamole made with avocado...
Caption 33, Tacos Emmanuel - Cómo hacer tacos de pescadoPlay Caption
80. Estadounidense (American)
Paul es estadounidense, de los Estados Unidos.
Paul is American, from the United States.
Caption 16, Carlos explica - Geografía y gentiliciosPlay Caption
81. Eucalipto (eucalyptus)
82. Euforia (euphoria)
83. Idiosincrasia (idiosyncrasy)
84. Licuadora (blender)
85. Paraguas (umbrella)
Voy a coger un paraguas, por si acaso.
I am going to grab an umbrella, just in case.
Caption 42, Clara explica - El tiempo - Part 1Play Caption
86. Triángulo (triangle)
Después pones este triángulo con la base hacia abajo.
Afterwards you put this triangle with the base toward the bottom.Play Caption
87. Vergüenza (shame)
There is a ‘cute’ joke in Spanish that goes like this:
- Do you know what the longest word in Spanish is?
- No. What is it?
- Arroz (rice)!
- Arroz? That’s a very short word.
- No, arroz is the longest word in Spanish because it starts with ‘a’ and ends with ‘z’!
Of course, that’s only a joke! Arroz is one of the easiest words in Spanish. However, the following are some of the most challenging and longest Spanish words:
88. Electroencefalograma (electroencephalogram)
89. Esternocleidomastoideo (sternocleidomastoid)
90. Contrarrevolucionario (counter-revolutionary)
91. Constitucionalidad (constitutionality)
92. Internacionalización (internalization)
93. Otorrinolaringólogo (otolaryngologist)
Apart from these very complicated words, all those adverbs that end in -mente are also some of the longest Spanish words. Let’s look at a few:
94. Constitucionalmente (constitutionally)
95. Desafortunadamente (unfortunately)
Cuando tú creces, desafortunadamente te das cuenta que
When you grow up, unfortunately, you realize that
Caption 23, La Sub30 - Familias - Part 9Play Caption
96. Desconsoladamente (inconsolably)
97. Fuertemente (heavily)
98. Tradicionalmente (traditionally)
Y nos dedicamos al cultivo del champiñón tradicionalmente.
And we are dedicated to the cultivation of the mushroom traditionally.Play Caption
99. Tristemente (sadly)
And finally, can you think of any Spanish word that has all the vowels on it? We have a long word for you, which is actually quite short in English:
100. Murciélago (bat)
La palabra más larga es murciélago.
The longest word is bat.
Caption 43, Karla e Isabel - PalabrasPlay Caption
That's it for now. We know that there are many more hard Spanish words that we should include in this list. If you feel like it, please share some additional difficult Spanish words with us, and we’ll be happy to add them to this lesson. And don’t forget to send us your feedback and suggestions. ¡Hasta la próxima!